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Egypt


    • Location:
      Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip

    • Map references:
      Africa

    • Area:

        total area:
        1,001,450 sq km

        land area:
        995,450 sq km

        comparative area:
        slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

    • Land boundaries:
      total 2,689 km, Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273 km

    • Coastline:
      2,450 km

    • Maritime claims:

        contiguous zone:
        24 nm

        continental shelf:
        200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

        exclusive economic zone:
        200 nm

        territorial sea:
        12 nm

    • International disputes:
      administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 sq km, tensions over this disputed area began to escalate in 1992 and remain high

    • Climate:
      desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

    • Terrain:
      vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

    • Natural resources:
      petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

    • Land use:

        arable land:
        3%

        permanent crops:
        2%

        meadows and pastures:
        0%

        forest and woodland:
        0%

        other:
        95%

    • Irrigated land:
      25,850 sq km (1989 est.)

    • Environment:

        current issues:
        agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salinization below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining natural resources

        natural hazards:
        periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; duststorms, sandstorms

        international agreements:
        party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Tropical Timber 94

    • Note:
      controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics






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Revised 13-August-1997