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Estonia Geography 1996

    • Location:
      Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia

    • Map references:

    • Area:

        total area:
        45,100 sq km

        land area:
        43,200 sq km

        comparative area:
        slightly larger than New Hampshire and Vermont combined

        includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

    • Land boundaries:
      total 557 km, Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km

    • Coastline:
      1,393 km

    • Maritime claims:

        exclusive economic zone:
        limits to be fixed in coordination with neighboring states

        territorial sea:
        12 nm

    • International disputes:
      claims over 2,000 sq km of Russian territory in the Narva and Pechora regions - based on boundary established under the 1921 Peace Treaty of Tartu

    • Climate:
      maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

    • Terrain:
      marshy, lowlands

    • Natural resources:
      shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber

    • Land use:

        arable land:

        permanent crops:

        meadows and pastures:

        forest and woodland:


    • Irrigated land:
      110 sq km (1990)

    • Environment:

        current issues:
        air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at military bases

        natural hazards:
        flooding occurs frequently in the spring

        international agreements:
        party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

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