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Finland


    • Location:
      Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

    • Map references:
      Europe

    • Area:

        total area:
        337,030 sq km

        land area:
        305,470 sq km

        comparative area:
        slightly smaller than Montana

    • Land boundaries:
      total 2,628 km, Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

    • Coastline:
      1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

    • Maritime claims:

        contiguous zone:
        6 nm

        continental shelf:
        200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

        exclusive fishing zone:
        12 nm

        territorial sea:
        4 nm

    • International disputes:
      none

    • Climate:
      cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

    • Terrain:
      mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

    • Natural resources:
      timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

    • Land use:

        arable land:
        8%

        permanent crops:
        0%

        meadows and pastures:
        0%

        forest and woodland:
        76%

        other:
        16%

    • Irrigated land:
      620 sq km (1989 est.)

    • Environment:

        current issues:
        air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

        natural hazards:
        NA

        international agreements:
        party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

    • Note:
      long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain






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