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Italy


    • Location:
      Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia

    • Map references:
      Europe

    • Area:

        total area:
        301,230 sq km

        land area:
        294,020 sq km

        comparative area:
        slightly larger than Arizona

        note:
        includes Sardinia and Sicily

    • Land boundaries:
      total 1,899.2 km, Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 199 km, Switzerland 740 km

    • Coastline:
      4,996 km

    • Maritime claims:

        continental shelf:
        200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

        territorial sea:
        12 nm

    • International disputes:
      none

    • Climate:
      predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south

    • Terrain:
      mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands

    • Natural resources:
      mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal

    • Land use:

        arable land:
        32%

        permanent crops:
        10%

        meadows and pastures:
        17%

        forest and woodland:
        22%

        other:
        19%

    • Irrigated land:
      31,000 sq km (1989 est.)

    • Environment:

        current issues:
        air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities

        natural hazards:
        regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice

        international agreements:
        party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification

    • Note:
      strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe






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Revised 13-August-1997