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Pakistan Geography 1996

    • Location:
      Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India and Iran

    • Map references:

    • Area:

        total area:
        803,940 sq km

        land area:
        778,720 sq km

        comparative area:
        slightly less than twice the size of California

    • Land boundaries:
      total 6,774 km, Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km

    • Coastline:
      1,046 km

    • Maritime claims:

        contiguous zone:
        24 nm

        continental shelf:
        200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

        exclusive economic zone:
        200 nm

        territorial sea:
        12 nm

    • International disputes:
      status of Kashmir with India; border question with Afghanistan (Durand Line); water-sharing problems (Wular Barrage) over the Indus with upstream riparian India

    • Climate:
      mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

    • Terrain:
      flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west

    • Natural resources:
      land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

    • Land use:

        arable land:

        permanent crops:

        meadows and pastures:

        forest and woodland:

        67% (1993)

    • Irrigated land:
      170,000 sq km (1992)

    • Environment:

        current issues:
        water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

        natural hazards:
        frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)

        international agreements:
        party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

    • Note:
      controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

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