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    German Democratic Republic Economy - 1990

      Overview: The GDR is moving rapidly away from its centrally planned economy. As the 1990s begin, economic integration with West Germany appears inevitable, beginning with the establishment of a common currency. The opening of the border with the FRG in late 1989 and the continuing emigration of hundreds of thousands of skilled workers had brought growth to a standstill by yearend 1989. Features of the old

      economic regime that will quickly change: (a) the collectivization of 95% of East German farms; (b) state ownership of nearly all transportation facilities, industrial plants, foreign trade organizations, and financial institutions; (c) the 65% share in trade of the USSR and other CEMA countries; and (d) the detailed control over economic details exercised by Party and state. Once integrated into the thriving West German economy, the area will have to stem the outflow of workers and renovate the obsolescent industrial base. After an initial readjustment period, living standards and quality of output will steadily rise toward West German levels.

      GNP: $159.5 billion, per capita $9,679; real growth rate 1.2% (1989 est.)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA

      Unemployment rate: NA%

      Budget: revenues $123.5 billion; expenditures $123.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $33 billion (1986)

      Exports: $30.7 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--machinery and transport equipment 47%, fuels and metals 16%, consumer goods 16%, chemical products and building materials 13%, semimanufactured goods and processed foodstuffs 8%; partners--USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, FRG, Hungary, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Romania

      Imports: $31.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--fuels and metals 40%, machinery and transport equipment 29%, chemical products and building materials 9%; partners--CEMA countries 65%, non-Communist 33%, other 2%

      External debt: $20.6 billion (1989)

      Industrial production: growth rate 2.7% (1989 est.)

      Electricity: (including East Berlin) 24,585,000 kW capacity; 122,500 million kWh produced, 7,390 kWh per capita (1989)

      Industries: metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding, machine building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum

      Agriculture: accounts for about 10% of GNP (including fishing and forestry); principal crops--wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit; livestock products include pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides and skins; net importer of food; fish catch of 193,600 metric tons in 1987

      Aid: donor--$4.0 billion extended bilaterally to non-Communist less developed countries (1956-88)

      Currency: GDR mark (plural--marks); 1 GDR mark (M) = 100 pfennige

      Exchange rates: GDR marks (M) per US$1--3.01 (1988), 3.00 (1987), 3.30 (1986), 3.70 (1985), 3.64 (1984)

      Fiscal year: calendar year

      NOTE: The information regarding German Democratic Republic on this page is re-published from the 1990 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of German Democratic Republic Economy 1990 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about German Democratic Republic Economy 1990 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 07-Feb-03
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