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    Syria Government - 1990

      Long-form name: Syrian Arab Republic

      Type: republic; under leftwing military regime since March 1963

      Capital: Damascus

      Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (muhafazat, singular--muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah, Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda, Dara, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq, Halab, Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Madinat Dimashq, Tartus

      Independence: 17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration); formerly United Arab Republic

      Constitution: 13 March 1973

      Legal system: based on Islamic law and civil law system; special religious courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

      National holiday: National Day, 17 April (1946)

      Executive branch: president, three vice presidents, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

      Legislative branch: unicameral People's Council (Majlis ash Shaab)

      Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court, High Judicial Council, Court of Cassation, State Security Courts

      Leaders: Chief of State--President Lt. Gen. Hafiz al-ASSAD (since 22 February 1971); Vice Presidents Abd al-Halim KHADDAM, Dr. Rifat al-ASSAD, and Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since 11 March 1984); Head of Government--Prime Minister Mahmud ZUBI (since 1 November 1987); Deputy Prime Minister Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March 1984)

      Political parties and leaders: ruling party is the Arab Socialist Resurrectionist (Bath) Party; the Progressive National Front is dominated by Bathists but includes independents and members of the Syrian Arab Socialist Party (ASP), Arab Socialist Union (ASU), Socialist Unionist Movement, and Syrian Communist Party (SCP)

      Suffrage: universal at age 18

      Elections: President--last held 10-11 February 1985 (next to be held February 1992); results--President Hafiz al-Assad was reelected without opposition; People's Council--last held 10-11 February 1986 (next to be held 22 May 1990); results--Bath 66%, ASU 5%, SCP 5%, Socialist Unionist Movement 4%, ASP 2%, independents 18%; seats--(195 total) Bath 129, Communist 9, ASU 9, Socialiist Unionist Movement 8, ASP 5, independents 35; the People's Council will have 250 seats total in the 22 May 1990 election

      Communists: mostly sympathizers, numbering about 5,000

      Other political or pressure groups: non-Bath parties have little effective political influence; Communist party ineffective; greatest threat to Assad regime lies in factionalism in the military; conservative religious leaders; Muslim Brotherhood

      Member of: Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO

      Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Walid Mu'allim; Chancery at 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-6313; US--Ambassador Edward P. DJEREJIAN; Embassy at Abu Rumaneh, Al Mansur Street No.2, Damascus (mailing address is P. O. Box 29, Damascus); telephone p963o (11) 333052 or 332557, 330416, 332814, 332315

      Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with two small green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; similar to the flags of the YAR which has one star and Iraq which has three stars (in a horizontal line centered in the white band)--all green and five-pointed; also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

      NOTE: The information regarding Syria on this page is re-published from the 1990 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Syria Government 1990 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Syria Government 1990 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 07-Feb-03
    Copyright © 2003 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)