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    Bhutan Economy - 2003

      Economy - overview: The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, providing the main livelihood for more than 90% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on India's financial assistance. The industrial sector is technologically backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources. The government has made some progress in expanding the nation's productive base and improving social welfare. Model education, social, and environment programs are underway with support from multilateral development organizations. Each economic program takes into account the government's desire to protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. Detailed controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

      GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.7 billion (2002 est.)

      GDP - real growth rate: 7.7% (2002 est.)

      GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,300 (2002 est.)

      GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 45%
      industry: 10%
      services: 45% (2002 est.)

      Population below poverty line: NA%

      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
      highest 10%: NA%

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2002 est.)

      Labor force: NA
      note: massive lack of skilled labor

      Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%

      Unemployment rate: NA%

      Budget: revenues: $146 million
      expenditures: $152 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY95/96 est.)
      note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's budget expenditures (FY95/96 est.)

      Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide

      Industrial production growth rate: 9.3% (1996 est.)

      Electricity - production: 1.896 billion kWh (2001)

      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.1%
      hydro: 99.9%
      other: 0% (2001)
      nuclear: 0%

      Electricity - consumption: 379.3 million kWh (2001)

      Electricity - exports: 1.4 billion kWh (2001)

      Electricity - imports: 16 million kWh (2001)

      Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)

      Oil - consumption: 1,020 bbl/day (2001 est.)

      Oil - exports: NA (2001)

      Oil - imports: NA (2001)

      Agriculture - products: rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs

      Exports: $154 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)

      Exports - commodities: electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, precious stones, spices

      Exports - partners: India 95%, Bangladesh 4% (1997)

      Imports: $196 million c.i.f. (2000 est.)

      Imports - commodities: fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice

      Imports - partners: India 82%, Japan 3% (1997)

      Debt - external: $245 million (2000)

      Economic aid - recipient: substantial aid from India and other nations

      Currency: ngultrum (BTN); Indian rupee (INR)

      Currency code: BTN; INR

      Exchange rates: ngultrum per US dollar - 48.6103 (2002), 47.1864 (2001), 44.9416 (2000), 43.0554 (1999), 41.2594 (1998)

      Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

      NOTE: The information regarding Bhutan on this page is re-published from the 2003 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Guinea Geography 2003 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Bhutan Economy 2003 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 20-Sep-03
    Copyright © 2020 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)