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    Iceland Economy - 2003
    https://theodora.com/wfb2003/iceland/iceland_economy.html
    SOURCE: 2003 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

      Economy - overview: Iceland's Scandinavian-type economy is basically capitalistic, yet with an extensive welfare system (including generous housing subsidies), low unemployment, and remarkably even distribution of income. In the absence of other natural resources (except for abundant hydrothermal and geothermal power), the economy depends heavily on the fishing industry, which provides 70% of export earnings and employs 12% of the work force. The economy remains sensitive to declining fish stocks as well as to fluctuations in world prices for its main exports: fish and fish products, aluminum, and ferrosilicon. Government policies include reducing the budget and current account deficits, limiting foreign borrowing, containing inflation, revising agricultural and fishing policies, diversifying the economy, and privatizing state-owned industries. The government remains opposed to EU membership, primarily because of Icelanders' concern about losing control over their fishing resources. Iceland's economy has been diversifying into manufacturing and service industries in the last decade, and new developments in software production, biotechnology, and financial services are taking place. The tourism sector is also expanding, with the recent trends in ecotourism and whale watching. Growth had been remarkably steady in 1996-2001 at 3%-5%, but could not be sustained in 2002 in an environment of global recession.


      GDP: purchasing power parity - $7 billion (2002 est.)


      GDP - real growth rate: -0.3% (2002 est.)


      GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $25,000 (2002 est.)


      GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14% (includes fishing 12%)
      industry: 21%
      services: 65% (2001 est.)


      Population below poverty line: NA%


      Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
      highest 10%: NA%


      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.2% (2002 est.)


      Labor force: 159,000 (2000)


      Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 5.1%, fishing and fish processing 11.8%, manufacturing 12.9%, construction 10.7%, other services 59.5% (1999)


      Unemployment rate: 2.8% (2002 est.)


      Budget: revenues: $3.5 billion
      expenditures: $3.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $467 million (1999)


      Industries: fish processing; aluminum smelting, ferrosilicon production, geothermal power; tourism


      Industrial production growth rate: 0.2% (2002 est.)


      Electricity - production: 7.894 billion kWh (2001)


      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.1%
      hydro: 82.5%
      other: 17.5% (2001)
      nuclear: 0%


      Electricity - consumption: 7.341 billion kWh (2001)


      Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2001)


      Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2001)


      Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)


      Oil - consumption: 16,300 bbl/day (2001 est.)


      Oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2001)


      Oil - imports: 15,470 bbl/day (2001)


      Agriculture - products: potatoes, green vegetables, chicken, pork, mutton; fish


      Exports: $2.3 billion f.o.b. (2002)


      Exports - commodities: fish and fish products 70%, animal products, aluminum, diatomite, ferrosilicon


      Exports - partners: UK 18.2%, Germany 14.9%, Netherlands 10.9%, US 10.3%, Portugal 5.5%, Spain 5.4%, Norway 5.3% (2001)


      Imports: $2.1 billion (2002)


      Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum products; foodstuffs, textiles


      Imports - partners: Germany 12.2%, US 11.1%, Denmark 8.6%, Norway 7.8%, UK 7.5%, Netherlands 6.6%, Sweden 5.8% (2001)


      Debt - external: $2.6 billion (1999)


      Currency: Icelandic krona (ISK)


      Currency code: ISK


      Exchange rates: Icelandic kronur per US dollar - 91.6617 (2002), 97.4246 (2001), 78.6159 (2000), 72.3353 (1999), 70.9583 (1998)


      Fiscal year: calendar year


      NOTE: The information regarding Iceland on this page is re-published from the 2003 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Guinea Geography 2003 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Iceland Economy 2003 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    https://theodora.com/wfb2003/iceland/iceland_economy.html

    Revised 20-Sep-03
    Copyright © 2003 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)


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