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    Mongolia Geography - 2003

      Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia

      Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E

      Map references: Asia

      Area: total: 1.565 million sq km
      water: 9,600 sq km
      land: 1,555,400 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

      Land boundaries: total: 8,162 km
      border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,485 km

      Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

      Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

      Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

      Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central

      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
      highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m

      Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate

      Land use: arable land: 0.84%
      permanent crops: 0%
      other: 99.16% (1998 est.)

      Irrigated land: 840 sq km (1998 est.)

      Natural hazards: dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud", which is harsh winter conditions

      Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment

      Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

      Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

      NOTE: The information regarding Mongolia on this page is re-published from the 2003 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Guinea Geography 2003 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Mongolia Geography 2003 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 20-Sep-03
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