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    Tonga Geography - 2003

      Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

      Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 175 00 W

      Map references: Oceania

      Area: total: 748 sq km
      water: 30 sq km
      land: 718 sq km

      Area - comparative: four times the size of Washington, DC

      Land boundaries: 0 km

      Coastline: 419 km

      Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
      territorial sea: 12 NM
      exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

      Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)

      Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base

      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
      highest point: unnamed location on Kao Island 1,033 m

      Natural resources: fish, fertile soil

      Land use: arable land: 23.61%
      permanent crops: 43.06%
      other: 33.33% (1998 est.)

      Irrigated land: NA sq km

      Natural hazards: cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou

      Environment - current issues: deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations

      Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
      signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

      Geography - note: archipelago of 169 islands (36 inhabited)

      NOTE: The information regarding Tonga on this page is re-published from the 2003 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Guinea Geography 2003 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Tonga Geography 2003 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 20-Sep-03
    Copyright © 2020 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)