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    Vietnam Geography - 2003
    https://theodora.com/wfb2003/vietnam/vietnam_geography.html
    SOURCE: 2003 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

      Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, alongside China, Laos, and Cambodia


      Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 106 00 E


      Map references: Southeast Asia


      Area: total: 329,560 sq km
      land: 325,360 sq km
      water: 4,200 sq km


      Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico


      Land boundaries: total: 4,639 km
      border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km


      Coastline: 3,444 km (excludes islands)


      Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM
      territorial sea: 12 NM
      continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
      exclusive economic zone: 200 NM


      Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)


      Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest


      Elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
      highest point: Fan Si Pan 3,144 m


      Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, forests, hydropower


      Land use: arable land: 17.41%
      permanent crops: 4.71%
      other: 77.88% (1998 est.)


      Irrigated land: 30,000 sq km (1998 est.)


      Natural hazards: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta


      Environment - current issues: logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City


      Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban


      Geography - note: extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point


      NOTE: The information regarding Vietnam on this page is re-published from the 2003 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Guinea Geography 2003 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Vietnam Geography 2003 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    https://theodora.com/wfb2003/vietnam/vietnam_geography.html

    Revised 20-Sep-03
    Copyright © 2003 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)


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