Peru Geography 2011

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Page last updated on January 13, 2011

Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates:
10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map references:
South America

total: 1,285,216 sq km
country comparison to the world: 20
[see also: Area - total country ranks ]
land: 1,279,996 sq km
[see also: Area - land country ranks ]
water: 5,220 sq km
[see also: Area - water country ranks ]

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 7,461 km
[see also: Land boundaries - total country ranks ]
border countries: Bolivia 1,075 km, Brazil 2,995 km, Chile 171 km, Colombia 1,800 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

2,414 km
[see also: Coastline country ranks ]

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm

varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
More Climate Details

western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
[see also: Elevation extremes - lowest point country ranks ]
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
[see also: Elevation extremes - highest point country ranks ]

Natural resources:
copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 2.88%
[see also: Land use - arable land country ranks ]
permanent crops: 0.47%
[see also: Land use - permanent crops country ranks ]
other: 96.65% (2005)
[see also: Land use - other country ranks ]

Irrigated land:
12,000 sq km (2003)
[see also: Irrigated land country ranks ]

Total renewable water resources:
1,913 cu km (2000)
[see also: Total renewable water resources country ranks ]

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 20.13 cu km/yr (8%/10%/82%)
[see also: Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) - total country ranks ]
per capita: 720 cu m/yr (2000)
[see also: Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) - per capita country ranks ]

Natural hazards:
earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
volcanism: Peru experiences volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (elev. 5,672 m, 18,609 ft), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane

Environment - current issues:
deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River

NOTE: The information regarding Peru on this page is re-published from the 2011 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Peru Geography 2011 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Peru Geography 2011 should be addressed to the CIA.

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This page was last modified 09-Feb-11
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