Bangladesh Government - 2023


SOURCE: 2023 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

Country name

conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh

conventional short form: Bangladesh

local long form: Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh

local short form: Bangladesh

former: East Bengal, East Pakistan

etymology: the name - a compound of the Bengali words "Bangla" (Bengal) and "desh" (country) - means "Country of Bengal"

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Dhaka

geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 24 E

time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the origins of the name are unclear, but some sources state that the city's site was originally called "dhakka," meaning "watchtower," and that the area served as a watch-station for Bengal rulers

Administrative divisions

8 divisions; Barishal, Chattogram, Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet

Independence

16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)

National holiday

Independence Day, 26 March (1971); Victory Day, 16 December (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of the Awami League's declaration of an independent Bangladesh, and 16 December (Victory Day) memorializes the military victory over Pakistan and the official creation of the state of Bangladesh

Constitution

history: previous 1935, 1956, 1962 (preindependence); latest enacted 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended March 1982, restored November 1986

amendments: proposed by the House of the Nation; approval requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the House membership and assent of the president of the republic; amended many times, last in 2018

Legal system

mixed legal system of mostly English common law and Islamic law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bangladesh

dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Mohammad Shahabuddin CHUPPI (since 24 April 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA Wazed (since 6 January 2009)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister, appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 February 2023 (next to be held by 2028); the president appoints as prime minister the majority party leader in the National Parliament

election results: 2023: President Abdul HAMID (AL) reelected by the National Parliament unopposed for a second term; Sheikh HASINA reappointed prime minister as leader of the majority AL party following parliamentary election in 2023

Legislative branch

description: unicameral House of the Nation or Jatiya Sangsad (350 seats; 300 members in single-seat territorial constituencies directly elected by simple majority vote; 50 members - reserved for women only - indirectly elected by the elected members by proportional representation vote using single transferable vote; all members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 30 December 2018 (next to be held in January 2024)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party as of February 2022 - AL 299, JP 27, BNP 7, other 10, independent 7; composition - men 277, women 73, percent of women 20.9%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Bangladesh (organized into the Appellate Division with 7 justices and the High Court Division with 99 justices)

judge selection and term of office: chief justice and justices appointed by the president; justices serve until retirement at age 67

subordinate courts: civil courts include: Assistant Judge's Court; Joint District Judge's Court; Additional District Judge's Court; District Judge's Court; criminal courts include: Court of Sessions; Court of Metropolitan Sessions; Metropolitan Magistrate Courts; Magistrate Court; special courts/tribunals

Political parties and leaders

Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]
Bangladesh Jamaat-i-Islami or JIB [Shafiqur RAHMAN]
Bangladesh Nationalist Front or BNF [S. M. Abul Kalam AZAD]
Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Tarique RAHMAN, acting chairperson; Khaleda ZIA]
Bangladesh Tariqat Federation or BTF [Syed Nozibul Bashar MAIZBHANDARI]
Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Rowshan ERSHAD]
Jatiya Party or JP (Manju faction) [Anwar Hossain MANJU]
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Oli AHMED]
National Socialist Party (Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal) or JSD [Hasanul Haque INU]
Workers Party or WP [Rashed Khan MENON]

International organization participation

ADB, ARF, BIMSTEC, C, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad IMRAN (since 12 December 2022)

chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183

FAX: [1] (202) 244-2771

email address and website:
mission.washington@mofa.gov.bd

http://www.bdembassyusa.org/

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Peter HAAS (since 15 March 2022)

embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka - 1212

mailing address: 6120 Dhaka Place, Washington DC  20521-6120

telephone: [880] (2) 5566-2000

FAX: [880] (2) 5566-2907

email address and website:
DhakaACS@state.gov

https://bd.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

green field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush vegetation of Bangladesh

National symbol(s)

Bengal tiger, water lily; national colors: green, red

National anthem

name: "Amar Shonar Bangla" (My Golden Bengal)

lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE

note: adopted 1971; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote India's national anthem

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 3 (2 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Bagerhat Historic Mosque (c); Ruins of the Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur (c); Sundarbans (n)

NOTE: The information regarding Bangladesh on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Bangladesh 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Bangladesh 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 10 Nov 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.