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Ecuador Government 2018

SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Ecuador Government 2018
SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 28, 2018

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form: Ecuador
etymology: the country's position on the globe, straddling the Equator, accounts for its Spanish name

Government type:
presidential republic

Capital:
name: Quito
geographic coordinates: 0 13 S, 78 30 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
24 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence:
24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday:
Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)

Constitution:
many previous; latest approved 20 October 2008; amended 2011, 2015; note - a 2015 constitutional amendment lifting presidential term limits became effective 2017 (2017)

Legal system:
civil law based on the Chilean civil code with modifications; traditional law in indigenous communities

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Suffrage:
18-65 years of age, universal and compulsory; 16-18, over 65, and other eligible voters, voluntary
[see also: Suffrage country ranks ]

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 24 May 2017); Vice President Maria Alejandra VICUNA Munoz (since 6 January 2018); note - Vice President Jorge GLAS Espinel (since 24 May 2013) has been jailed for corruption and absent from office for more than 3 months, causing him to be constitutionally stripped of his office; president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 24 May 2017); Vice President Maria Alejandra VICUNA Munoz (since 6 January 2018); note - Vice President Jorge GLAS Espinel (since 24 May 2013)has been jailed for corruption and absent from office for more than 3 months, causing him to be constitutionally stripped of his office; president is both chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 19 February 2017 with a runoff on 2 April 2017 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Lenin MORENO Garces elected president in second round; percent of vote - Lenin MORENO Garces (Alianza PAIS Movement) 51.1%, Guillermo LASSO (CREO) 48.9%

Legislative branch:
description: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (137 seats; 116 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 15 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote, and 6 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies for Ecuadorians living abroad by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 19 February 2017 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - PAIS 39.1%, CREO-SUMA 20.1%, PSC 15.9%, ID 3.8%, MUPP 2.7%; seats by party - PAIS 74, CREO-SUMA 34, PSC 15, ID 4, MUPP 4, Independents 3, PSP 2, Fuerza Ecuador 1; note - defections by members of National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties

Judicial branch:
highest court(s): National Court of Justice or Corte Nacional de Justicia (consists of 21 judges including the chief justice and organized into 5 specialized chambers); Constitutional Court or Corte Constitucional (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: justices of National Court of Justice elected by the Judiciary Council, a 9-member independent body of law professionals; judges elected for 9-year, non-renewable terms, with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the executive, legislative, and Citizen Participation branches of government; judges appointed for 9-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Fiscal Tribunal; Election Dispute Settlement Courts, provincial courts (one for each province); cantonal courts

Political parties and leaders:
Alianza PAIS movement [Lenin Voltaire MORENO Garces] Avanza Party or AVANZA [Ramiro GONZALEZ] Creating Opportunities Movement or CREO [Guillermo LASSO] Democratic Left or ID Forward Ecuador Movement [Alvaro NOBOA] Fuerza Ecuador [Abdala BUCARAM] (successor to Roldosist Party) Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement or MUPP [Marlon Rene SANTI Gualinga] Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Gilmar GUTIERREZ Borbua] Popular Democracy Movement or MPD [Luis VILLACIS] Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO] Socialist Party [Patricio ZABRANO] Society United for More Action or SUMA [Mauricio RODAS]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Humberto CHOLANGO] Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Manuel CHUGCHILAN] National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN

International organization participation:
CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco Benjamin Esteban CARRION Mena(since 24 January 2018)
chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New Haven (CT), New Orleans, New York, Newark (NJ), Phoenix, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Todd C. CHAPMAN (since 14 April 2016)
embassy: Avenida Avigiras E12-170 y Avenida Eloy Alfaro, Quito
mailing address: Avenida Guayacanes N52-205 y Avenida Avigiras
telephone: [593] (2) 398-5000
FAX: [593] (2) 398-5100
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag description:
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the South American republic that broke up in 1830; the yellow color represents sunshine, grain, and mineral wealth, blue the sky, sea, and rivers, and red the blood of patriots spilled in the struggle for freedom and justice
note: similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

National symbol(s):
Andean condor; national colors: yellow, blue, red

National anthem:
name: "Salve, Oh Patria!" (We Salute You, Our Homeland)
lyrics/music: Juan Leon MERA/Antonio NEUMANE
note: adopted 1948; Juan Leon MERA wrote the lyrics in 1865; only the chorus and second verse are sung


NOTE: 1) The information regarding Ecuador on this page is re-published from the 2018 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Ecuador Government 2018 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Ecuador Government 2018 should be addressed to the CIA.
2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
  a) The assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
  b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order






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