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Ecuador Government - 2024


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador

conventional short form: Ecuador

local long form: República del Ecuador

local short form: Ecuador

etymology: the country's position on the globe, straddling the Equator, accounts for its Spanish name

Government type

presidential republic


name: Quito

geographic coordinates: 0 13 S, 78 30 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

time zone note: Ecuador has two time zones, including the Galapagos Islands (UTC-6)

etymology: named after the Quitu, a Pre-Columbian indigenous people credited with founding the city; the name is also a combination of two Tsafiki words: quitso (meaning "center" or "half") + to or tu ("the world"); the combination roughly translates as "center of the world" and reflects the fact that native peoples recognized that at the two annual equinoxes, the overhead sun in that area (only about 20 km (12 mi) north of the equator) did not display any shade and thus must be in the middle of the world

Administrative divisions

24 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora Chinchipe


24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)


history: many previous; latest approved 20 October 2008

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic through a referendum, by public petition of at least 1% of registered voters, or by agreement of at least one-third membership of the National Assembly; passage requires two separate readings a year apart and approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, and approval by absolute majority in a referendum; amendments such as changes to the structure of the state, constraints on personal rights and guarantees, or constitutional amendment procedures are not allowed; amended 2011, 2015, 2018

Legal system

civil law based on the Chilean civil code with modifications; traditional law in indigenous communities

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years


18-65 years of age; universal and compulsory; 16-18, over 65, and other eligible voters, voluntary

Executive branch

chief of state: President Daniel NOBOA Azin (since 23 November 2023); Vice President Verónica ABAD Rojas (since 23 November 2023); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Daniel NOBOA Azin (since 23 November 2023); Vice President Verónica ABAD Rojas (since 23 November 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 August 2023 with a runoff on 15 October 2023 (next to be held on 28 February 2025); note – on 18 May 2023, Ecuador’s National Electoral Council announced that the legislative and presidential elections—originally scheduled for February 2025—would be held on 20 August 2023 with a runoff on 15 October 2023 after former president Guillermo LASSO dissolved the National Assembly by decree on 17 May 2023; though eligible for a second term, LASSO announced that he would not run in the 2023 election; President Daniel NOBOA Azin will serve out the remainder of the current presidential term (2021–2025)

election results:

Daniel NOBOA Azin elected president; percent of vote in the second round - Luisa GONZÁLEZ Alcivar (MRC) 33.6%, Daniel NOBOA Azin (ADN) 23.5%, Christian Gustavo ZURITA Ron (Construye) 16.4%, Jan Tomislav TOPIĆ Feraud (Por Un País Sin Miedo) 14.7%, Otto Ramón SONNENHOLZNER Sper (Avanza) 7.1% other 4.7%; percent of vote in the second round - Daniel NOBOA Azin 51.8%, Luisa GONZÁLEZ Alcivar 48.2%

2021: Guillermo LASSO Mendoza elected president; percent of vote in the first round - Andres ARAUZ (UNES) 32.7%, Guillermo LASSO Mendoza (CREO) 19.7%, Yaku PEREZ Guartambel (MUPP) 19.4%, Xavier HERVAS Mora (ID) 15.7%, other 12.5%; percent of vote in the second round - Guillermo LASSO Mendoza (CREO) 52.5%, Andres ARAUZ (UNES) 47.5%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (137 seats; 116 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 15 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by open-list proportional representation vote, and 6 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies for Ecuadorians living abroad by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - all Assembly members have alternates from the same party who cast votes when a primary member is absent, resigns, or is removed from office

elections: last held on 20 August 2023 (next to be held on 28 February 2025); note – on 18 May 2023, Ecuador’s National Electoral Council announced that the legislative and presidential elections—originally scheduled for February 2025—would be held on 20 August 2023 after President Guillermo LASSO dissolved the National Assembly by decree on 17 May 2023; a return to a regular election cycle will occur in February 2025

election results: percent of vote by party - MRC 39.7%, Construye 20.4%, ADN 14.6%, PSC 11.9%, Actuemos 4.5%, PSP 3.2%, other 5.7%; seats by party - NA; note - defections by National Assembly members are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties

Judicial branch

highest court(s): National Court of Justice or Corte Nacional de Justicia (consists of 21 judges, including the chief justice and organized into 5 specialized chambers); Constitutional Court or Corte Constitucional (consists of the court president and 8 judges)

judge selection and term of office: candidates for the National Court of Justice evaluated and appointed justices by the Judicial Council, a 9-member independent body of law professionals; justices elected for 9-year, non-renewable terms, with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years; candidates for the Constitutional Court evaluated and appointed judges by a 6-member independent body of law professionals; judges appointed for 4-year renewable terms

subordinate courts: provincial courts (one for each province except Galapagos); fiscal, criminal, and administrative tribunals; Election Dispute Settlement Courts; cantonal courts

Political parties and leaders

Actuemos Ecuador or Actuemos
AMIGO movement, Independent Mobilizing Action Generating Opportunities (Movimiento AMIGO (Acción Movilizadora Independiente Generando Oportunidades)) or AM16O [Victor BRAVO, acting president]
Avanza Party or AVANZA [Javier ORTI Torres]
Central Democratic Movement or CD [Jimmy JAIRALA]
Citizen Revolution Movement or MRC or RC5 [Luisa GONZÁLEZ]
Creating Opportunities Movement or CREO [Esteban BERNAL]
Democratic Left or ID [Analía LEDESMA]
Democracy Yes Movement (Movimiento Democracia Si) [Gustavo LARREA]
For A Country Without Fear (Por Un País Sin Miedo) (an alliance including PSC, CD, and PSP) [Jan Tomislav TOPIĆ Feraud]
Green Movement (Movimiento Verde
Movimiento Construye or Construye [María Paula ROMO]
National Democratic Action (Acción Democrática Nacional) or ADN [Daniel NOBOA]
Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement or MUPP [Guillermo CHURUCHUMBI]
Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIÉRREZ Borbúa]
People, Equality, and Democracy Party (Partido Pueblo, Igualdad y Democracia) or PID [Arturo MORENO]
Popular Unity Party (Partido Unidad Popular) or UP [Geovanni ATARIHUANA]
Revolutionary and Democratic Ethical Green Movement (Movimiento Verde Ético Revolucionario y Democrático) or MOVER [René ESPÍN, Secretary-General]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Alfredo SERRANO]
Socialist Party [Gustavo VALLEJO]
Society United for More Action or SUMA [Guillermo CELI]
Total Renovation Movement (Movimiento Renovacion Total) or RETO [Eduardo SÁNCHEZ]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Maria Soledad PEÑA PLAZA (since 9 February 2024)

chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

Contact – Washington (

telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200

FAX: [1] (202) 333-2893

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New Haven (CT), New York, Newark (NJ), Phoenix, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. FITZPATRICK (since 3 July 2019)

embassy: E12-170 Avenida Avigiras y Avenida Eloy Alfaro, Quito

mailing address: 3420 Quito Place, Washington DC  20521-3420

telephone: [593] (2) 398-5000

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag description

three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the South American republic that broke up in 1830; the yellow color represents sunshine, grain, and mineral wealth, blue the sky, sea, and rivers, and red the blood of patriots spilled in the struggle for freedom and justice

note: similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

National symbol(s)

Andean condor; national colors: yellow, blue, red

National anthem

name: "Salve, Oh Patria!" (We Salute You, Our Homeland)

lyrics/music: Juan Leon MERA/Antonio NEUMANE

note: adopted 1948; Juan Leon MERA wrote the lyrics in 1865; only the chorus and second verse are sung

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 5 (3 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: (c); (n); Historic Cuenca (c); Qhapaq Ñan/Andean Road System (c); Sangay National Park (n)

NOTE: The information regarding Ecuador on this page is re-published from the 2024 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Ecuador 2024 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Ecuador 2024 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 04 May 24, Copyright © 2024 ITA all rights reserved.