Open translate

Equatorial Guinea People - 2024


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese


1,737,695 (2023 est.)


noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)

adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic groups

Fang 78.1%, Bubi 9.4%, Ndowe 2.8%, Nanguedambo 2.7%, Bisio 0.9%, foreigner 5.3%, other 0.7%, unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)


Spanish (official) 67.6%, other (includes Fang, Bubi, Portuguese (official), French (official), Fa d'Ambo spoken in Annobon) 32.4% (1994 est.)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Spanish audio sample:


Roman Catholic 88%, Protestant 5%, Muslim 2%, other 5% (animist, Baha'i, Jewish) (2015 est.)

Demographic profile

Equatorial Guinea is one of the smallest and least populated countries in continental Africa and is the only independent African country where Spanish is an official language. Despite a boom in oil production in the 1990s, authoritarianism, corruption, and resource mismanagement have concentrated the benefits among a small elite. These practices have perpetuated income inequality and unbalanced development, such as low public spending on education and health care. Unemployment remains problematic because the oil-dominated economy employs a small labor force dependent on skilled foreign workers. The agricultural sector, Equatorial Guinea’s main employer, continues to deteriorate because of a lack of investment and the migration of rural workers to urban areas. About two-thirds of the population lives below the poverty line as of 2020.

Equatorial Guinea’s large and growing youth population – about 60% are under the age of 25 as of 2022 – is particularly affected because job creation in the non-oil sectors is limited, and young people often do not have the skills needed in the labor market. Equatorial Guinean children frequently enter school late, have poor attendance, and have high dropout rates. Thousands of Equatorial Guineans fled across the border to Gabon in the 1970s to escape the dictatorship of Francisco MACIAS NGUEMA; smaller numbers have followed in the decades since. Continued inequitable economic growth and high youth unemployment increases the likelihood of ethnic and regional violence.

Age structure

0-14 years: 36.05% (male 323,846/female 302,666)

15-64 years: 59.01% (male 561,260/female 464,130)

65 years and over: 4.94% (2023 est.) (male 44,561/female 41,232)

2023 population pyramid:

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 72.2

youth dependency ratio: 66.7

elderly dependency ratio: 5.4

potential support ratio: 18.5 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 21.9 years (2023 est.)

male: 22.5 years

female: 21.3 years

Population growth rate

3.36% (2023 est.)

Birth rate

29.5 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate

8.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate

13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution

only two large cities over 30,000 people (Bata on the mainland, and the capital Malabo on the island of Bioko); small communities are scattered throughout the mainland and the five inhabited islands as shown in this


urban population: 74.4% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.62% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

297,000 MALABO (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.21 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.08 male(s)/female

total population: 1.15 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

212 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 77.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 83.8 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 71.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 63.8 years (2023 est.)

male: 61.5 years

female: 66.1 years

Total fertility rate

4.19 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

2.06 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate


Drinking water source

improved: urban: 81.7% of population

rural: 32.1% of population

total: 67.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 18.3% of population

rural: 67.9% of population

total: 32.4% of population (2017 est.)

Current health expenditure

3.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

0.4 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 81.2% of population

rural: 63.4% of population

total: 76.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 18.8% of population

rural: 36.6% of population

total: 23.8% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and sexually transmitted diseases: hepatitis B (2024)

animal contact diseases: rabies

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

8% (2016)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 6.11 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.83 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 1.24 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.99 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.05 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

60.2% (2023 est.)

Education expenditures



definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.3%

male: 97.4%

female: 93% (2015)

NOTE: The information regarding Equatorial Guinea on this page is re-published from the 2024 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Equatorial Guinea 2024 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Equatorial Guinea 2024 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 04 May 24, Copyright © 2024 ITA all rights reserved.