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Finland People - 2024


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese


5,614,571 (2023 est.)


noun: Finn(s)

adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups

Finnish, Swedish, Russian, Estonian, Romani, Sami

note: 90.9% of the population has a Finnish background (2022 est.)


Finnish (official) 85.9%, Swedish (official) 5.2%, Russian 1.7%, other 7.2% (2022 est.)

major-language sample(s):
World Factbook, korvaamaton perustietolähde. (Finnish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Finnish audio sample:


Lutheran 66.6%, Greek Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.7%, none 30.6% (2022 est.)

Demographic profile

Finland has a relatively high fertility rate for Europe at about 1.75 children per woman in 2023.  Finnish women have high labor force participation rates, and their educational attainment is higher than that of Finnish men. Finland’s family policy, like other Nordic countries, puts an emphasis on reconciling work and family life.  Both parents can stay at home with an earnings-based allowance until the baby is about 11 months old.  Finland also has a publicly subsidized childcare system.  Alternatively, parents can choose to take care of a small child through home care leave with a flat allowance rate.  These benefits have encouraged fathers to do a greater share of housework and childcare, although women still perform the lion’s share of domestic work.  In other instances, women have reduced the burden of household work by outsourcing domestic chores, rather than men taking on more of the responsibilities.  Finland has high family size ideals compared to other European countries, and childlessness and one-child families are not favored.  The proportion of couples having at least three children has been growing since the 1970s.

Finland has historically been a country of emigration.  In the 20th century, Finns emigrated largely in two waves.  Before World War II, the majority of Finns went to North America, and after World War II most went to Sweden, where industrialization was generating much-needed jobs that offered higher salaries and a better standard of living.  In the 1980s and early 1990s, Finnish returnees (mainly from Sweden) began to outnumber Finnish emigrants.  Also arriving in Finland between April 1990 and 2010, were Ingrian Finns – descendants of ethnic Finns who settled near St. Petersburg, Russia, in the 17th century – who immigrated to Finland under the Right of Return Law.  In addition, the country has absorbed immigrants from Russia, Estonia, the former Yugoslavia, and Sweden for a variety of reasons, most commonly for marriage and family reunification.  Finland has also accepted refugees and asylum seekers from Somalia, Iraq, China, and Thailand.

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.25% (male 466,311/female 446,015)

15-64 years: 60.5% (male 1,726,110/female 1,670,981)

65 years and over: 23.25% (2023 est.) (male 575,259/female 729,895)

2023 population pyramid:

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 62.1

youth dependency ratio: 25

elderly dependency ratio: 37.1

potential support ratio: 2.7 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 43.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 41.7 years

female: 44.8 years

Population growth rate

0.22% (2023 est.)

Birth rate

10.3 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate

10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate

2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution

the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely populated


urban population: 85.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.42% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.338 million HELSINKI (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.5 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

8 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.9 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82 years (2023 est.)

male: 79.1 years

female: 85 years

Total fertility rate

1.74 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.85 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

85.5% (2015)

note: percent of women aged 18-49

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

9.6% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

4.64 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

3.6 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.2% (2016)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 8.23 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.76 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 1.59 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.96 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.91 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 21.6% (2020 est.)

male: 26.9% (2020 est.)

female: 16.3% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight


Currently married women (ages 15-49)

57.2% (2023 est.)

Child marriage

women married by age 18: 0.1% (2017 est.)

Education expenditures

5.9% of GDP (2020 est.)


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 19 years

male: 18 years

female: 20 years (2020)

NOTE: The information regarding Finland on this page is re-published from the 2024 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Finland 2024 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Finland 2024 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 04 May 24, Copyright © 2024 ITA all rights reserved.