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Gabon People - 2024


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese


2,397,368 (2023 est.)


noun: Gabonese (singular and plural)

adjective: Gabonese

Ethnic groups

Fang 23.5%, Shira-Punu'Vii 20.6%, Nzabi-Duma 11.2%, Mbede-Teke 5.6%, Myene 4.4%, Kota-Kele 4.3%, Okande-Tsogho 1.6%, other 12.6%, foreigner 16.2% (2021 est.)


French (official), Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi


Protestant 46.4% (Revival Church 37%, other Protestant 9.4%), Roman Catholic 29.8%, other Christian 4%, Muslim 10.8%, traditional/animist 1.1%, other 0.9%, none 7% (2019-21 est.)

Demographic profile

Gabon’s oil revenues have given it one of the highest per capita income levels in Sub-Saharan Africa, but the wealth is not evenly distributed and poverty is widespread. Unemployment is especially prevalent among the large youth population; more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25 as of 2020. With a fertility rate still averaging more than 3 children per woman, the youth population will continue to grow and further strain the mismatch between Gabon’s supply of jobs and the skills of its labor force.

Gabon has been a magnet to migrants from neighboring countries since the 1960s because of the discovery of oil, as well as the country’s political stability and timber, mineral, and natural gas resources. Nonetheless, income inequality and high unemployment have created slums in Libreville full of migrant workers from Senegal, Nigeria, Cameroon, Benin, Togo, and elsewhere in West Africa. In 2011, Gabon declared an end to refugee status for 9,500 remaining Congolese nationals to whom it had granted asylum during the Republic of the Congo’s civil war between 1997 and 2003. About 5,400 of these refugees received permits to reside in Gabon.

Age structure

0-14 years: 35.04% (male 424,741/female 415,342)

15-64 years: 60.76% (male 765,729/female 690,931)

65 years and over: 4.2% (2023 est.) (male 50,920/female 49,705)

2023 population pyramid:

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 67.6

youth dependency ratio: 61

elderly dependency ratio: 6.5

potential support ratio: 15.3 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 21.8 years (2023 est.)

male: 22.2 years

female: 21.3 years

Population growth rate

2.39% (2023 est.)

Birth rate

25.9 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate

5.6 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate

3.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution

the relatively small population is spread in pockets throughout the country; the largest urban center is the capital of Libreville, located along the Atlantic coast in the northwest as shown in this


urban population: 91% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.27% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

870,000 LIBREVILLE (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female

total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.6 years (2012 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 20-49

Maternal mortality ratio

227 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 27.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 30.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 70 years (2023 est.)

male: 68.3 years

female: 71.8 years

Total fertility rate

3.26 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

1.61 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

31.1% (2012)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 97.2% of population

rural: 55.3% of population

total: 93.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.8% of population

rural: 44.7% of population

total: 6.9% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

3.4% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

0.65 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

6.3 beds/1,000 population

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 81.3% of population

rural: 55.1% of population

total: 78.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 18.7% of population

rural: 44.9% of population

total: 21.3% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and sexually transmitted diseases: hepatitis B (2024)

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

15% (2016)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 6.47 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 5.31 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.62 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.5 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

6.4% (2019/20)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

49.7% (2023 est.)

Education expenditures

3.2% of GDP (2020 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 85.5%

male: 86.2%

female: 84.7% (2021)

NOTE: The information regarding Gabon on this page is re-published from the 2024 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Gabon 2024 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Gabon 2024 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 04 May 24, Copyright © 2024 ITA all rights reserved.