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Greece Economy 2019

SOURCE: 2019 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Greece Economy 2019
SOURCE: 2019 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 08, 2019

Economy - overview:
Greece has a capitalist economy with a public sector accounting for about 40% of GDP and with per capita GDP about two-thirds that of the leading euro-zone economies. Tourism provides 18% of GDP. Immigrants make up nearly one-fifth of the work force, mainly in agricultural and unskilled jobs. Greece is a major beneficiary of EU aid, equal to about 3.3% of annual GDP.

The Greek economy averaged growth of about 4% per year between 2003 and 2007, but the economy went into recession in 2009 as a result of the world financial crisis, tightening credit conditions, and Athens' failure to address a growing budget deficit. By 2013, the economy had contracted 26%, compared with the pre-crisis level of 2007. Greece met the EU's Growth and Stability Pact budget deficit criterion of no more than 3% of GDP in 2007-08, but violated it in 2009, when the deficit reached 15% of GDP. Deteriorating public finances, inaccurate and misreported statistics, and consistent underperformance on reforms prompted major credit rating agencies to downgrade Greece's international debt rating in late 2009 and led the country into a financial crisis. Under intense pressure from the EU and international market participants, the government accepted a bailout program that called on Athens to cut government spending, decrease tax evasion, overhaul the civil-service, health-care, and pension systems, and reform the labor and product markets. Austerity measures reduced the deficit to 1.3% in 2017. Successive Greek governments, however, failed to push through many of the most unpopular reforms in the face of widespread political opposition, including from the country's powerful labor unions and the general public.

In April 2010, a leading credit agency assigned Greek debt its lowest possible credit rating, and in May 2010, the IMF and euro-zone governments provided Greece emergency short- and medium-term loans worth $147 billion so that the country could make debt repayments to creditors. Greece, however, struggled to meet the targets set by the EU and the IMF, especially after Eurostat - the EU's statistical office - revised upward Greece's deficit and debt numbers for 2009 and 2010. European leaders and the IMF agreed in October 2011 to provide Athens a second bailout package of $169 billion. The second deal called for holders of Greek government bonds to write down a significant portion of their holdings to try to alleviate Greece’s government debt burden. However, Greek banks, saddled with a significant portion of sovereign debt, were adversely affected by the write down and $60 billion of the second bailout package was set aside to ensure the banking system was adequately capitalized.

In 2014, the Greek economy began to turn the corner on the recession. Greece achieved three significant milestones: balancing the budget - not including debt repayments; issuing government debt in financial markets for the first time since 2010; and generating 0.7% GDP growth — the first economic expansion since 2007.

Despite the nascent recovery, widespread discontent with austerity measures helped propel the far-left Coalition of the Radical Left (SYRIZA) party into government in national legislative elections in January 2015. Between January and July 2015, frustrations grew between the SYRIZA-led government and Greece’s EU and IMF creditors over the implementation of bailout measures and disbursement of funds. The Greek government began running up significant arrears to suppliers, while Greek banks relied on emergency lending, and Greece’s future in the euro zone was called into question. To stave off a collapse of the banking system, Greece imposed capital controls in June 2015, then became the first developed nation to miss a loan payment to the IMF, rattling international financial markets. Unable to reach an agreement with creditors, Prime Minister Alexios TSIPRAS held a nationwide referendum on 5 July on whether to accept the terms of Greece’s bailout, campaigning for the ultimately successful "no" vote. The TSIPRAS government subsequently agreed, however, to a new $96 billion bailout in order to avert Greece’s exit from the monetary bloc. On 20 August 2015, Greece signed its third bailout, allowing it to cover significant debt payments to its EU and IMF creditors and to ensure the banking sector retained access to emergency liquidity. The TSIPRAS government — which retook office on 20 September 2015 after calling new elections in late August — successfully secured disbursal of two delayed tranches of bailout funds. Despite the economic turmoil, Greek GDP did not contract as sharply as feared, boosted in part by a strong tourist season.

In 2017, Greece saw improvements in GDP and unemployment. Unfinished economic reforms, a massive non-performing loan problem, and ongoing uncertainty regarding the political direction of the country hold the economy back. Some estimates put Greece’s black market at 20- to 25% of GDP, as more people have stopped reporting their income to avoid paying taxes that, in some cases, have risen to 70% of an individual’s gross income.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$299.3 billion (2017 est.)
$295.3 billion (2016 est.)
$296 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 56
[see also: GDP country ranks ]

GDP (official exchange rate):
$200.7 billion (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP (official exchange rate) country ranks ]

GDP - real growth rate:
1.4% (2017 est.)
-0.2% (2016 est.)
-0.3% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
[see also: GDP - real growth rate country ranks ]

GDP - per capita:
$27,800 (2017 est.)
$27,400 (2016 est.)
$27,300 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 75
[see also: GDP - per capita country ranks ]

Gross national saving:
10.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
9.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
9.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
[see also: Gross national saving country ranks ]

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 69.6% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - household consumption country ranks ]
government consumption: 20.1% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - government consumption country ranks ]
investment in fixed capital: 12.5% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - investment in fixed capital country ranks ]
investment in inventories: -1% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - investment in inventories country ranks ]
exports of goods and services: 33.4% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - exports of goods and services country ranks ]
imports of goods and services: -34.7% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - imports of goods and services country ranks ]

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 4.1% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - agriculture country ranks ]
industry: 16.9% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - industry country ranks ]
services: 79.1% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - services country ranks ]

Agriculture - products:
wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products

Industries:
tourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate:
3.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
[see also: Industrial production growth rate country ranks ]

Labor force:
4.769 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
[see also: Labor force country ranks ]

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 12.6%
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - agriculture country ranks ]
industry: 15%
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - industry country ranks ]
services: 72.4% (30 October 2015 est.)
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - services country ranks ]

Unemployment rate:
21.5% (2017 est.)
23.6% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
[see also: Unemployment rate country ranks ]

Population below poverty line:
36% (2014 est.)
[see also: Population below poverty line country ranks ]

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.7%
[see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share - lowest 10% country ranks ]
highest 10%: 26.7% (2015 est.)
[see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share - highest 10% country ranks ]

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
36.7 (2012 est.)
35.7 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 86
[see also: Distribution of family income - Gini index country ranks ]

Budget:
revenues: 97.99 billion (2017 est.)
[see also: Budget - revenues country ranks ]
expenditures: 96.35 billion (2017 est.)
[see also: Budget - expenditures country ranks ]

Taxes and other revenues:
48.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
[see also: Taxes and other revenues country ranks ]

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
0.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
[see also: Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) country ranks ]

Public debt:
181.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
183.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
[see also: Public debt country ranks ]

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.1% (2017 est.)
0% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
[see also: Inflation rate (consumer prices) country ranks ]

Central bank discount rate:
0.05% (31 March 2016)
0.15% (11 June 2014)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
country comparison to the world: 144
[see also: Central bank discount rate country ranks ]

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
5.25% (31 December 2017 est.)
5.62% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
[see also: Commercial bank prime lending rate country ranks ]

Stock of narrow money:
$106.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$86.53 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
country comparison to the world: 39
[see also: Stock of narrow money country ranks ]

Stock of broad money:
$106.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$86.53 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
[see also: Stock of broad money country ranks ]

Stock of domestic credit:
$248.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$231.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
[see also: Stock of domestic credit country ranks ]

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$42.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$55.15 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$82.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
[see also: Market value of publicly traded shares country ranks ]

Current account balance:
-$1.596 billion (2017 est.)
-$2.072 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
[see also: Current account balance country ranks ]

Exports:
$31.54 billion (2017 est.)
$27.1 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
[see also: Exports country ranks ]

Exports - partners:
Italy 10.6%, Germany 7.1%, Turkey 6.8%, Cyprus 6.5%, Bulgaria 4.9%, Lebanon 4.3% (2017)

Exports - commodities:
food and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles

Imports:
$52.27 billion (2017 est.)
$45.45 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
[see also: Imports country ranks ]

Imports - commodities:
machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals

Imports - partners:
Germany 10.4%, Italy 8.2%, Russia 6.8%, Iraq 6.3%, South Korea 6.1%, China 5.4%, Netherlands 5.3%, France 4.3% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$7.807 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.026 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
[see also: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold country ranks ]

Debt - external:
$506.6 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$468.2 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
[see also: Debt - external country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$35.48 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$30.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - at home country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$29.64 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$32.91 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad country ranks ]

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.885 (2017 est.)
0.903 (2016 est.)
0.9214 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)


NOTE: 1) The information regarding Greece on this page is re-published from the 2019 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Greece Economy 2019 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Greece Economy 2019 should be addressed to the CIA.
2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
  a) They assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
  b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order






This page was last modified 08-Feb-19
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