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Iran Government 2018

SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Iran Government 2018
SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 28, 2018

Country name:
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Iran
conventional short form: Iran
local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
local short form: Iran
former: Persia
etymology: name derives from the Avestan term "aryanam" meaning "Land of the noble [ones]"

Government type:
theocratic republic

Capital:
name: Tehran
geographic coordinates: 35 42 N, 51 25 E
time difference: UTC+3.5 (8.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins fourth Wednesday in March; ends fourth Friday in September

Administrative divisions:
31 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan); Alborz, Ardabil, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi (West Azerbaijan), Azarbayjan-e Sharqi (East Azerbaijan), Bushehr, Chahar Mahal va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Golestan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Kermanshah, Khorasan-e Jonubi (South Khorasan), Khorasan-e Razavi (Razavi Khorasan), Khorasan-e Shomali (North Khorasan), Khuzestan, Kohgiluyeh va Bowyer Ahmad, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan

Independence:
1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed); notable earlier dates: ca. 550 B.C. (Achaemenid (Persian) Empire established); A.D. 1501 (Iran reunified under the Safavid Dynasty); 1794 (beginning of Qajar Dynasty); 12 December 1925 (modern Iran established under the PAHLAVI Dynasty)

National holiday:
Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Constitution:
history: previous 1906; latest adopted 24 October 1979, effective 3 December 1979
amendments: proposed by the supreme leader – after consultation with the Exigency Council – and submitted as an edict to the “Council for Revision of the Constitution,” a body consisting of various executive, legislative, judicial, and academic leaders and members; passage requires absolute majority vote in a referendum and approval of the supreme leader; articles including Iran’s political system, its religious basis, and its form of government cannot be amended; amended 1989 (2016)

Legal system:
religious legal system based on secular and Islamic law

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Iran
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
[see also: Suffrage country ranks ]

Executive branch:
chief of state: Supreme Leader Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989)
head of government: President Hasan Fereidun RUHANI (since 3 August 2013); First Vice President Eshaq JAHANGIRI (since 5 August 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president with legislative approval; the supreme leader has some control over appointments to several ministries
elections/appointments: supreme leader appointed for life by Assembly of Experts; president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term and an additional nonconsecutive term); election last held on 19 May 2017 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Hasan Fereidun RUHANI reelected president; percent of vote - Hasan Fereidun RUHANI (Moderation and Development Party) 50.7%, Mohammad Bagher GHALIBAF (PJP) 16.6%, Mohsen REZAI (Resistance Front of Islamic Iran) 10.6%, Saeed JALILI (Front of Islamic Revolutionary Stability 11.4% other 10.7%
note: 3 oversight bodies are also considered part of the executive branch of government

Legislative branch:
description: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly or Majles-e Shura-ye Eslami or Majles (290 seats; 285 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by 2-round vote, and 1 seat each for Zoroastrians, Jews, Assyrian and Chaldean Christians, Armenians in the north of the country and Armenians in the South; members serve 4-year terms); note - all candidates to the Majles must be approved by the Guardians Council, a 12-member group of which 6 are appointed by the supreme leader and 6 are jurists nominated by the judiciary and elected by the Majles
elections: first round held on 26 February 2016 and second round for 68 remaining seats held on 29 April 2016; (next full Majles election to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by coalition - List of Hope 37.2%, Principlists Grand Coalition 25.9%, People's Voice Coalition 4.5%, joint Hope/People’s Voice 4.1%, joint People’s Voice/Principlist 0.3%, religious minorities 1.7%, independent 26.4%; seats by coalition - List of Hope 108, Principlists Grand Coalition 75, People's Voice Coalition 13, joint Hope/People’s Voice 12, joint People’s Voice/Principlist 1, religious minorities 5, independent 76

Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the president and NA judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by the head of the High Judicial Council (HJC), a 5-member body to include the Supreme Court chief justice, the prosecutor general, and 3 clergy, in consultation with judges of the Supreme Court; president appointed for a 5-year term; other judges appointed by the HJC; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: Penal Courts I and II; Islamic Revolutionary Courts; Courts of Peace; Special Clerical Court (functions outside the judicial system and handles cases involving clerics); military courts

Political parties and leaders:
Followers of Walayat [Ali LARIJANI] Front of Islamic Revolutionary Stability [Morteza AGHA-TEHRANI, general secretary] Pervasive Coalition of Reformists: The Second Step [Ali SOUFI, chairman] (includes Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front, National Trust Party, Union of Islamic Iran People Party, Moderation and Development Party) Principlists Grand Coalition [Alireza ZAKANI] (includes Combatant Clergy Association and Islamic Coalition Party, Society of Devotees and Pathseekers of the Islamic Revolution, Front of Islamic Revolution Stability) Progress and Justice Population of Islamic Iran or PJP [Hossein GHORBANZADEH, General Secretary] Resistance Front of Islamic Iran [Yadollah HABIBI, general secretary]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
political groups that support the Islamic Republic: Ansar-e Hizballah Democracy Party (Hezb-e Mardom Salari) Executives of Construction Party (Kargozaran) Followers of the Guardianship of the Jurisprudent (Rahrovan) Followers of the Line of the Imam and the Leader (Peyrovan) Islamic Iran Freedom Party (Hezb-e Azadegi) Islamic Coalition Party (Motalefeh) Islamic Labor Party (Hezb-e Kar) Militant Clerics Society or MCS (Ruhaniyun) Moderation and Development Party (Hezb-e Etedal va Tose-eh) Nation of Iran Unity Party (Hezb-e Etehad) National Trust Party (Hezb-e Etemad-e Meli) Qom Theological Lecturers Association Reform Front Coordination Council (Shora-ye Hamahangi Eslahat) Society of Devotees (Isargaran) Society of Modern Thinking Muslim Women of Iran (Jamiat-e Zanan-e Noandish) Steadfastness Front (Paydari) Tehran Militant Clergy Association or MCA (Ruhaniyat) Voice of Iranians (Neda) Wayfarers of the Islamic Revolution (Rahpuyan);
armed political groups repressed by the government: Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan or KDPI Harekat-e Ansar-e Iran (splinter faction of Jundallah) Jaysh l-Adl (formerly known as Jundallah) Komala Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization or MEK (MKO) People's Fedayeen People's Free Life Party of Kurdistan or PJAK

International organization participation:
CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, SAARC (observer), SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
none; note - Iran has an Interests Section in the Pakistani Embassy; address: Iranian Interests Section, Pakistani Embassy, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone: [1] (202) 965-4990; FAX [1] (202) 965-1073

Diplomatic representation from the US:
none; note - the US Interests Section is located in the Embassy of Switzerland, No. 39 Shahid Mousavi (Golestan 5th), Pasdaran Ave., Tehran, Iran; telephone [98] 21 2254 2178/2256 5273; FAX [98] 21 2258 0432

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah in the shape of a tulip, a symbol of martyrdom) in red is centered in the white band; ALLAH AKBAR (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band; green is the color of Islam and also represents growth, white symbolizes honesty and peace, red stands for bravery and martyrdom

National symbol(s):
lion; national colors: green, white, red

National anthem:
name: "Soroud-e Melli-ye Jomhouri-ye Eslami-ye Iran" (National Anthem of the Islamic Republic of Iran)
lyrics/music: multiple authors/Hassan RIAHI
note: adopted 1990

  • Economy :: IRAN

  • Economy - overview:
    Iran's economy is marked by statist policies, inefficiencies, and reliance on oil and gas exports, but Iran also possesses significant agricultural, industrial, and service sectors. The Iranian government directly owns and operates hundreds of state-owned enterprises and indirectly controls many companies affiliated with the country's security forces. Distortions - including corruption, price controls, subsidies, and a banking system holding billions of dollars of non-performing loans - weigh down the economy, undermining the potential for private-sector-led growth.Private sector activity includes small-scale workshops, farming, some manufacturing, and services, in addition to medium-scale construction, cement production, mining, and metalworking. Significant informal market activity flourishes and corruption is widespread.The lifting of most nuclear-related sanctions under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) in January 2016 sparked a restoration of Iran’s oil production and revenue that drove rapid GDP growth, but economic growth declined in 2017 as oil production plateaued. The economy continues to suffer from low levels of investment and declines in productivity since before the JCPOA, and from high levels of unemployment, especially among women and college-educated Iranian youth.In May 2017, the re-election of President Hasan RUHANI generated widespread public expectations that the economic benefits of the JCPOA would expand and reach all levels of society. RUHANI will need to implement structural reforms that strengthen the banking sector and improve Iran’s business climate to attract foreign investment and encourage the growth of the private sector. Sanctions that are not related to Iran’s nuclear program remain in effect, and these—plus fears over the possible re-imposition of nuclear-related sanctions—will continue to deter foreign investors from engaging with Iran.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $1.631 trillion (2017 est.) $1.576 trillion (2016 est.) $1.401 trillion (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 19

    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $427.7 billion (2016 est.)
    [see also: GDP (official exchange rate) country ranks ]

    GDP - real growth rate:
    3.5% (2017 est.) 12.5% (2016 est.) -1.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    [see also: GDP - real growth rate country ranks ]

    GDP - per capita:
    $20,000 (2017 est.) $19,600 (2016 est.) $17,600 (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 88

    Gross national saving:
    41.5% of GDP (2017 est.) 37.6% of GDP (2016 est.) 37.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    [see also: Gross national saving country ranks ]

    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 50.2%
    [see also: GDP - composition, by end use - household consumption country ranks ]
    government consumption: 13.3%
    [see also: GDP - composition, by end use - government consumption country ranks ]
    investment in fixed capital: 21.3%
    [see also: GDP - composition, by end use - investment in fixed capital country ranks ]
    investment in inventories: 14.1%
    [see also: GDP - composition, by end use - investment in inventories country ranks ]
    exports of goods and services: 22.5%
    [see also: GDP - composition, by end use - exports of goods and services country ranks ]
    imports of goods and services: -21.3% (2017 est.)
    [see also: GDP - composition, by end use - imports of goods and services country ranks ]

    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 9.8%
    [see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - agriculture country ranks ]
    industry: 35.9%
    [see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - industry country ranks ]
    services: 54.3% (2017 est.)
    [see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - services country ranks ]

    Agriculture - products:
    wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, sugarcane, fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar

    Industries:
    petroleum, petrochemicals, gas, fertilizer, caustic soda, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), ferrous and nonferrous metal fabrication, armaments

    Industrial production growth rate:
    7.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    [see also: Industrial production growth rate country ranks ]

    Labor force:
    30.5 million
    note: shortage of skilled labor (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    [see also: Labor force country ranks ]

    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 16.3%
    [see also: Labor force - by occupation - agriculture country ranks ]
    industry: 35.1%
    [see also: Labor force - by occupation - industry country ranks ]
    services: 48.6% (2013 est.)
    [see also: Labor force - by occupation - services country ranks ]

    Unemployment rate:
    12.4% (2017 est.) 12.5% (2016 est.)
    note: data are Iranian government numbers
    country comparison to the world: 160
    [see also: Unemployment rate country ranks ]

    Population below poverty line:
    18.7% (2007 est.)
    [see also: Population below poverty line country ranks ]

    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 2.6%
    [see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share - lowest 10% country ranks ]
    highest 10%: 29.6% (2005)

    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    44.5 (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    [see also: Distribution of family income - Gini index country ranks ]

    Budget:
    revenues: $77.22 billion
    [see also: Budget - revenues country ranks ]
    expenditures: $86.26 billion (2017 est.)
    [see also: Budget - expenditures country ranks ]

    Taxes and other revenues:
    18.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    [see also: Taxes and other revenues country ranks ]

    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -2.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    [see also: Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) country ranks ]

    Public debt:
    14.2% of GDP (2017 est.) 13.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    note: includes publicly guaranteed debt
    country comparison to the world: 194
    [see also: Public debt country ranks ]

    Fiscal year:
    21 March - 20 March

    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    10.5% (2017 est.) 9% (2016 est.)
    note: official Iranian estimate
    country comparison to the world: 204
    [see also: Inflation rate (consumer prices) country ranks ]

    Central bank discount rate:
    NA%
    [see also: Central bank discount rate country ranks ]

    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    13% (31 December 2017 est.) 18% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    [see also: Commercial bank prime lending rate country ranks ]

    Stock of narrow money:
    $51.61 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $47.59 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    [see also: Stock of narrow money country ranks ]

    Stock of broad money:
    $436.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $366 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    [see also: Stock of broad money country ranks ]

    Stock of domestic credit:
    $366.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $315.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    [see also: Stock of domestic credit country ranks ]

    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $89.43 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $116.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $345.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    [see also: Market value of publicly traded shares country ranks ]

    Current account balance:
    $21.6 billion (2017 est.) $16.39 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    [see also: Current account balance country ranks ]

    Exports:
    $91.99 billion (2017 est.) $83.98 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    [see also: Exports country ranks ]

    Exports - commodities:
    petroleum 60%, chemical and petrochemical products, fruits and nuts, carpets, cement, ore

    Exports - partners:
    China 30.1%, India 16.7%, South Korea 9.7%, Turkey 9.5%, Japan 6.8% (2016)

    Imports:
    $70.53 billion (2017 est.) $63.14 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    [see also: Imports country ranks ]

    Imports - commodities:
    industrial supplies, capital goods, foodstuffs and other consumer goods, technical services

    Imports - partners:
    UAE 27.4%, China 13.2%, Turkey 7.8%, South Korea 4.3%, Germany 4% (2016)

    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $132.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $133.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    [see also: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold country ranks ]

    Debt - external:
    $10.56 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $8.196 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    [see also: Debt - external country ranks ]

    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $50.33 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $46.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    [see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - at home country ranks ]

    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $5.226 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $4.656 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    [see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad country ranks ]

    Exchange rates:
    Iranian rials (IRR) per US dollar - 32,769.7 (2017 est.) 30,914.9 (2016 est.) 30,914.9 (2015 est.) 29,011.5 (2014 est.) 25,912 (2013 est.)


  • NOTE: 1) The information regarding Iran on this page is re-published from the 2018 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Iran Government 2018 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Iran Government 2018 should be addressed to the CIA.
    2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
      a) The assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
      b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order






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