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Kazakhstan People - 2024


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese


19,543,464 (2023 est.)


noun: Kazakhstani(s)

adjective: Kazakhstani

Ethnic groups

Kazakh (Qazaq) 69.6%, Russian 17.9%, Uzbek 3.3%, Uyghur 1.5%, Ukrainian 1.3%,  Tatar 1%, other 5.3% (2022 est.)


Kazakh (official, Qazaq) 83.1% (understand spoken language) and trilingual (Kazakh, Russian, English) 22.3% (2017 est.); Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 94.4% (understand spoken language) (2009 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Әлемдік деректер кітабы, негізгі ақпараттың таптырмайтын көзі. (Kazakh)

Книга фактов о мире – незаменимый источник базовой информации. (Russian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Kazakh audio sample:
Russian audio sample:


Muslim 70.2%, Christian 26.2% (mainly Russian Orthodox), other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009 est.)

Demographic profile

Nearly 40% of Kazakhstan’s population is under the age of 25.  Like many former Soviet states, Kazakhstan’s total fertility rate (TFR) – the average number of births per woman – decreased after independence amidst economic problems and fell below replacement level, 2.1.  However, in the late 2000s, as the economy improved and incomes rose, Kazakhstan experienced a small baby boom and TFR reached 2.5.  TFR has since fallen and is now just over 2.1.  Mortality rates are also decreasing and life expectancy is rising, signs that Kazakhstan’s demographic transition is progressing. 

Kazakhstan has a diverse population consisting of Asian ethnic groups (predominantly Kazakhs, as well as Uzbeks, Uighurs, and Tatars) and ethnic Europeans (mainly Russians but also Ukrainians and Germans).  Approximately two thirds of Kazakhstan’s population today is Kazakh.  During the mid-20th century, as Kazakhstan industrialized, waves of ethnic Russians and deportees from other parts of the Soviet Union arrived.  Eventually, the ethnic Russian population outnumbered the Kazakhs.  In the 1990s, following Kazakhstan’s independence, Russian and other ethnic Europeans began emigrating, while some ethnic Kazakhs (referred to as Oralmans) returned to their homeland from neighboring countries, China, and Mongolia.  As a result, the country’s ethnic make-up changed, and a Kazakh majority was reestablished.

In recent years, Kazakhstan has shifted from being mainly a migrant-sending country to a migrant-receiving country.  Due to its oil-driven economic boom, Kazakhstan has become a more popular destination.  The country needs highly skilled workers in the industrial, business, and education sectors and low-skilled labor in agriculture, markets, services, and construction.  Kazakhstan is increasingly reliant on migrant workers, primarily from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, to fill its labor shortage.  At the same time, highly skilled Kazakhs continue to emigrate, mostly to Russia, seeking higher salaries or further education.

Age structure

0-14 years: 25.26% (male 2386022/female 2,551,575)

15-64 years: 65.29% (male 6,226,792/female 6,533,887)

65 years and over: 9.44% (2023 est.) (male 660,397/female 1,184,791)

2023 population pyramid:

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 60

youth dependency ratio: 47.2

elderly dependency ratio: 12.7

potential support ratio: 7.9 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 31.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 29.9 years

female: 33.5 years

Population growth rate

0.9% (2023 est.)

Birth rate

17.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate

8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution

most of the country displays a low population density, particularly the interior; population clusters appear in urban agglomerations in the far northern and southern portions of the country


urban population: 58.2% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.19% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.987 million Almaty, 1.291 million NUR-SULTAN (capital), 1.155 million Shimkent (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.56 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.9 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

13 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 9.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.1 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 73 years (2023 est.)

male: 68.7 years

female: 77.7 years

Total fertility rate

2.59 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

1.25 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

53% (2018)

note: percent of women aged 18-49

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 93.8% of population

total: 97.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 6.2% of population

total: 2.6% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

3.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

3.98 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

6.1 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: 99.9% of population

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: 0.1% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

21% (2016)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 3.73 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 2.52 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.16 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.05 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 23.2% (2020 est.)

male: 39.6% (2020 est.)

female: 6.7% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

2% (2015)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

61.8% (2023 est.)

Education expenditures

4.5% of GDP (2020 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.7% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 16 years (2020)

NOTE: The information regarding Kazakhstan on this page is re-published from the 2024 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Kazakhstan 2024 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Kazakhstan 2024 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 04 May 24, Copyright © 2024 ITA all rights reserved.