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Madagascar PEOPLE 2018

SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Madagascar PEOPLE 2018
SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 28, 2018

Population:
25,054,161 (July 2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
[see also: Population country ranks ]

Nationality:
noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
adjective: Malagasy

Ethnic groups:
Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran

Languages:
French (official), Malagasy (official), English

Religions:
Christian, indigenous religionist, Muslim

Demographic profile:
Madagascar’s youthful population – just over 60% are under the age of 25 – and high total fertility rate of more than 4 children per women ensures that the Malagasy population will continue its rapid growth trajectory for the foreseeable future. The population is predominantly rural and poor; chronic malnutrition is prevalent, and large families are the norm. Many young Malagasy girls are withdrawn from school, marry early (often pressured to do so by their parents), and soon begin having children. Early childbearing, coupled with Madagascar’s widespread poverty and lack of access to skilled health care providers during delivery, increases the risk of death and serious health problems for young mothers and their babies. Child marriage perpetuates gender inequality and is prevalent among the poor, the uneducated, and rural households – as of 2013, of Malagasy women aged 20 to 24, more than 40% were married and more than a third had given birth by the age of 18. Although the legal age for marriage is 18, parental consent is often given for earlier marriages or the law is flouted, especially in rural areas that make up nearly 65% of the country. Forms of arranged marriage whereby young girls are married to older men in exchange for oxen or money are traditional. If a union does not work out, a girl can be placed in another marriage, but the dowry paid to her family diminishes with each unsuccessful marriage. Madagascar’s population consists of 18 main ethnic groups, all of whom speak the same Malagasy language. Most Malagasy are multi-ethnic, however, reflecting the island’s diversity of settlers and historical contacts (see Background). Madagascar’s legacy of hierarchical societies practicing domestic slavery (most notably the Merina Kingdom of the 16th to the 19th century) is evident today in persistent class tension, with some ethnic groups maintaining a caste system. Slave descendants are vulnerable to unequal access to education and jobs, despite Madagascar’s constitutional guarantee of free compulsory primary education and its being party to several international conventions on human rights. Historical distinctions also remain between central highlanders and coastal people.

Age structure:
0-14 years: 39.87% (male 5,035,160/female 4,952,909)
[see also: Age structure - 0-14 years country ranks ]
15-24 years: 20.34% (male 2,556,130/female 2,538,644)
[see also: Age structure - 15-24 years country ranks ]
25-54 years: 32.12% (male 4,022,698/female 4,025,038)
[see also: Age structure - 25-54 years country ranks ]
55-64 years: 4.38% (male 535,300/female 560,932)
[see also: Age structure - 55-64 years country ranks ]
65 years and over: 3.3% (male 374,770/female 452,580) (2017 est.)

population pyramid:
A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab.

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 80.1
[see also: Dependency ratios - total dependency ratio country ranks ]
youth dependency ratio: 75
[see also: Dependency ratios - youth dependency ratio country ranks ]
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
[see also: Dependency ratios - elderly dependency ratio country ranks ]
potential support ratio: 19.6 (2015 est.)
[see also: Dependency ratios - potential support ratio country ranks ]

Median age:
total: 19.7 years
[see also: Median age - total country ranks ]
male: 19.5 years
[see also: Median age - male country ranks ]
female: 19.9 years (2017 est.)
[see also: Median age - female country ranks ]
country comparison to the world: 196

Population growth rate:
2.5% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
[see also: Population growth rate country ranks ]

Birth rate:
31.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
[see also: Birth rate country ranks ]

Death rate:
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
[see also: Death rate country ranks ]

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
[see also: Net migration rate country ranks ]

Population distribution:
most of population lives on the eastern half of the island; significant clustering is found in the central highlands and eastern coastline

Urbanization:
urban population: 36.4% of total population (2017)
[see also: Urbanization - urban population country ranks ]
rate of urbanization: 4.47% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
[see also: Urbanization - rate of urbanization country ranks ]

Major urban areas - population:
ANTANANARIVO (capital) 2.61 million (2015)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - at birth country ranks ]
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - 0-14 years country ranks ]
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - 15-24 years country ranks ]
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - 25-54 years country ranks ]
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - 55-64 years country ranks ]
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
[see also: Sex ratio - 65 years and over country ranks ]
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
[see also: Sex ratio - total population country ranks ]

Mother's mean age at first birth:
19.5 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008/09 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio:
353 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
[see also: Maternal mortality ratio country ranks ]

Infant mortality rate:
total: 41.2 deaths/1,000 live births
[see also: Infant mortality rate - total country ranks ]
male: 45 deaths/1,000 live births
[see also: Infant mortality rate - male country ranks ]
female: 37.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
[see also: Infant mortality rate - female country ranks ]
country comparison to the world: 45

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.3 years
[see also: Life expectancy at birth - total population country ranks ]
male: 64.7 years
[see also: Life expectancy at birth - male country ranks ]
female: 67.8 years (2017 est.)
[see also: Life expectancy at birth - female country ranks ]
country comparison to the world: 175
[See also: Healthy Life Expectancy ]
[See also: Health Performance ]

Total fertility rate:
4.03 children born/woman (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
[see also: Total fertility rate country ranks ]

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
39.9% (2008/09)
[see also: Contraceptive prevalence rate country ranks ]

Health expenditures:
3% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 181
[see also: Health expenditures country ranks ]

Physicians density:
0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
[see also: Physicians density country ranks ]

Hospital bed density:
0.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
[see also: Hospital bed density country ranks ]

Drinking water source:
improved: urban: 81.6% of population rural: 35.3% of population total: 51.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 18.4% of population rural: 64.7% of population total: 48.5% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
improved: urban: 18% of population rural: 8.7% of population total: 12% of population
unimproved: urban: 82% of population rural: 91.3% of population total: 88% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
[see also: HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate country ranks ]

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
31,000 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
[see also: HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS country ranks ]

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,600 (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
[see also: HIV/AIDS - deaths country ranks ]

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
5.3% (2016)
country comparison to the world: 179
[see also: Obesity - adult prevalence rate country ranks ]

Education expenditures:
2.1% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 150

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 64.7%
[see also: Literacy - total population country ranks ]
male: 66.7%
[see also: Literacy - male country ranks ]
female: 62.6% (2015 est.)
[see also: Literacy - female country ranks ]

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
[see also: School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) - total country ranks ]
male: 11 years
[see also: School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) - male country ranks ]
female: 10 years (2014)
[see also: School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) - female country ranks ]

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 2.6%
[see also: Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 - total country ranks ]
male: 2.2%
[see also: Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 - male country ranks ]
female: 3% (2012 est.)
[see also: Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 - female country ranks ]
country comparison to the world: 155


NOTE: 1) The information regarding Madagascar on this page is re-published from the 2018 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Madagascar PEOPLE 2018 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Madagascar PEOPLE 2018 should be addressed to the CIA.
2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
  a) The assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
  b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order






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