Open translate

Nepal Government - 2024


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Nepal

local long form: none

local short form: Nepal

etymology: the Newar people of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding areas apparently gave their name to the country; the terms "Nepal," "Newar," "Nepar," and "Newal" are phonetically different forms of the same word

Government type

federal parliamentary republic


name: Kathmandu

geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E

time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: name derives from the Kasthamandap temple that stood in Durbar Square; in Sanskrit, kastha means "wood" and mandapa means "pavilion"; the three-story structure was made entirely of wood, without iron nails or supports, and dated to the late 16th century; it collapsed during a 2015 earthquake

Administrative divisions

7 provinces (pradesh, singular - pradesh); Bagmati, Gandaki, Karnali, Koshi, Lumbini, Madhesh, Sudurpashchim


1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)

National holiday

Constitution Day, 20 September (2015); note - marks the promulgation of Nepal’s constitution in 2015 and replaces the previous 28 May Republic Day as the official national day in Nepal; the Gregorian day fluctuates based on Nepal’s Hindu calendar


history: several previous; latest approved by the Second Constituent Assembly 16 September 2015, signed by the president and effective 20 September 2015

amendments: proposed as a bill by either house of the Federal Parliament; bills affecting a state border or powers delegated to a state must be submitted to the affected state assembly; passage of such bills requires a majority vote of that state assembly membership; bills not requiring state assembly consent require at least two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses of the Federal Parliament; parts of the constitution on the sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence, and sovereignty vested in the people cannot be amended; amended 2016, 2020

Legal system

English common law and Hindu legal concepts; note - new criminal and civil codes came into effect on 17 August 2018

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ram Chandra POUDEL (since 13 March 2023); Vice President Ram Sahaya Prasad YADAV (since 20 March 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal DAHAL (since 26 December 2022); Deputy Prime Ministers Narayan Kaji SHRESTHA (since 26 December 2022), Rabi LAMICHHANE (since 26 December 2022), Raghubir MAHASETH (since 6 March 2024), Upendra YADAV (since 10 March 2024) (an)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister; cabinet split between Nepali Congress, Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist Centre, and various coalition partners

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of the Federal Parliament and of the state assemblies for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 March 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

election results:2023: Ram Chandra POUDEL elected president; electoral college vote - Ram Chandra POUDEL (NC) 33,802, Subash Chandra NEMBANG (CPN-UML) 15,518

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of:
National Assembly (59 seats; 56 members, including at least 3 women, 1 Dalit, 1 member with disabilities, or 1 minority indirectly elected by an electoral college of state and municipal government leaders, and 3 members, including 1 woman, nominated by the president of Nepal on the recommendation of the government; members serve 6-year terms with renewal of one-third of the membership every 2 years)
House of Representatives (275 seats; 165 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 110 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed-list proportional representation vote, with a threshold of 3% overall valid vote to be allocated a seat; members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Representatives was dissolved on 22 May 2021, but on 13 July, the Supreme Court directed its reinstatement

National Assembly - last held on 26 January 2022 (next to be held in 2024)

House of Representatives - last held on 20 November 2022 (next to be held in November 2027)

election results:
National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPN-UML 42, NC 13, FSFN 2, RJPN 2; composition - men 37, women 22, percent of women 37.3%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NC 89, CPN-UML 78, CPN-MC 32, RSP 20, RPP 14, PSP-N 12, CPN (Unified Socialist) 10, Janamat Party 6, Loktantrik Samajwadi Party 4,
other 10; composition - men 184, women 91, percent of women 33.1%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and up to 20 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the Constitutional Council, a 5-member, high-level advisory body headed by the prime minister; other judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the Judicial Council, a 5-member advisory body headed by the chief justice; the chief justice serves a 6-year term; judges serve until age 65

subordinate courts: High Court; district courts

Political parties and leaders

Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) or CPN-MC [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL]
Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) or CPN-UML [Khadga Prasad OLI]
Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Socialist) or CPN-US [Madhav Kumar NEPAL]
Janamat Party [Chandra Kant RAUT]
Janata Samajbaadi Party or JSP [Upendra YADAV]
Loktantrik Samajwadi Party or LSP [Mahantha THAKUR]
Naya Shakti Party, Nepal [Baburam BHATTARAI]
Nepali Congress or NC [Sher Bahadur DEUBA]
Nepal Mazdoor Kisan Party (Nepal Workers' and Peasants' Party) or NWPP [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]
Rastriya Janamorcha (National People's Front) [Chitra Bahadur K.C.]
Rastriya Prajatantra Party (National Democratic Party) or RPP [Rajendra Prasad LINGDEN]
Rastriya Swatantra Party or RSP [Rabi LAMICHHANE]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Sridhar KHATRI (since 19 April 2022)

chancery: 2730 34th Place NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550

FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Dean R. THOMPSON (since October 2022)

embassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandu

mailing address: 6190 Kathmandu Place, Washington DC  20521-6190

telephone: [977] (1) 423-4000

FAX: [977] (1) 400-7272

email address and website:

Flag description

crimson red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle displays a white 12-pointed sun; the color red represents the rhododendron (Nepal's national flower) and is a sign of victory and bravery, the blue border signifies peace and harmony; the two right triangles are a combination of two single pennons (pennants) that originally symbolized the Himalaya Mountains while their charges represented the families of the king (upper) and the prime minister, but today they are understood to denote Hinduism and Buddhism, the country's two main religions; the moon represents the serenity of the Nepalese people and the shade and cool weather in the Himalayas, while the sun depicts the heat and higher temperatures of the lower parts of Nepal; the moon and the sun are also said to express the hope that the nation will endure as long as these heavenly bodies

note: Nepal is the only country in the world whose flag is not rectangular or square

National symbol(s)

rhododendron blossom; national color: red

National anthem

name: "Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka" (Hundreds of Flowers)

lyrics/music: Pradeep Kumar RAI/Ambar GURUNG

note: adopted 2007; after the abolition of the monarchy in 2006, a new anthem was required because of the previous anthem's praise for the king

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 4 (2 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Kathmandu Valley (c); Sagarmatha National Park (n); Chitwan National Park (n); Lumbini, Buddha Birthplace (c)

NOTE: The information regarding Nepal on this page is re-published from the 2024 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Nepal 2024 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Nepal 2024 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 04 May 24, Copyright © 2024 ITA all rights reserved.