Paraguay Government - 2023


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Paraguay

conventional short form: Paraguay

local long form: República del Paraguay

local short form: Paraguay

etymology: the precise meaning of the name Paraguay is unclear, but it seems to derive from the river of the same name; one explanation has the name meaning "water of the Payagua" (an indigenous tribe that lived along the river)

Government type

presidential republic


name: Asuncion

geographic coordinates: 25 16 S, 57 40 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends last Sunday in March

etymology: the name means "assumption" and derives from the original name given to the city at its founding in 1537, Nuestra Senora Santa Maria de la Asuncion (Our Lady Saint Mary of the Assumption)

Administrative divisions

17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital city*; Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Asuncion*, Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro


14-15 May 1811 (from Spain); note - the uprising against Spanish authorities took place during the night of 14-15 May 1811 and both days are celebrated in Paraguay

National holiday

Independence Day, 14-15 May (1811) (observed 15 May); 14 May is celebrated as Flag Day


history: several previous; latest approved and promulgated 20 June 1992

amendments: proposed at the initiative of at least one quarter of either chamber of the National Congress, by the president of the republic, or by petition of at least 30,000 voters; passage requires a two-thirds majority vote by both chambers and approval in a referendum; amended 2011

Legal system

civil law system with influences from Argentine, Spanish, Roman, and French civil law models; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Paraguay

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years


18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 75

Executive branch

chief of state: President Mario ABDO BENÍTEZ (since 15 August 2018); Vice President Hugo Adalberto VELÁZQUEZ Moreno (since 15 August 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Mario ABDO BENÍTEZ (since 15 August 2018); Vice President Hugo Adalberto VELÁZQUEZ Moreno (since 15 August 2018)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a single 5-year term; election last held on 30 April 2023 (next to be held in April 2028)

election results:
2023: Santiago PEÑA Palacios elected president; percent of vote - Santiago PEÑA Palacios (ANR) 43.9%, Efraín ALEGRE (PLRA) 28.3%, Paraguayo CUBAS Colomes 23.6%, other 4.2%; note - PEÑA will take office 15 August 2023

Mario ABDO BENÍTEZ elected president; percent of vote - Mario ABDO BENÍTEZ (ANR) 49%, Efraín ALEGRE (PLRA) 45.1%, Juan Bautista YBÁÑEZ 3.4%, other 2.5%

2013: Horacio Manuel CARTES Jara elected president; percent of vote - Horacio Manuel CARTES Jara (ANR) 48.5%, Efraín ALEGRE (PLRA) 39%, Mario FERREIRO (AP) 6.2%, Aníbal CARRILLO (FG) 3.5%, other 2.8%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of:
Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (45 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (80 seats; members directly elected in 18 multi-seat constituencies - corresponding to the country's 17 departments and capital city - by closed-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

Chamber of Senators - last held on 30 April 2023 (next to be held in April 2028)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 30 April 2023 (next to be held in April 2028)

election results:
Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party/coalition - ANR 45.7%, PLRA 24.4%, PCN 11.5%, PEN 5.2%, PPQ 2.5%, other 10.7%; seats by party/coalition - ANR 23, PLRA 12, PCN 5, PEN 2, PPQ 1, other 2; composition - men 38, women 7, percent of women 18.4%

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party/coalition - ANR 44%, PLRA 30.9%, PCN 8.3%, PPQ 3.6%, PEN 2.9%; other 10.3%; seats by party/coalition - ANR 49, PLRA 21, PCN 4, PEN 2, PPQ 1, other 3; composition - men 68, women 12, percent of women 17.6%; note - total National Congress percent of women NA%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 9 justices divided 3 each into the Constitutional Court, Civil and Commercial Chamber, and Criminal Division)

judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the Council of Magistrates or Consejo de la Magistratura, a 6-member independent body, and appointed by the Chamber of Senators with presidential concurrence; judges can serve until mandatory retirement at age 75

subordinate courts: appellate courts; first instance courts; minor courts, including justices of the peace

Political parties and leaders

Asociacion Nacional Republicana (National Republican Association) - Colorado Party or ANR [Mario ABDO BENITEZ]
Avanza Pais coalition or AP [Adolfo FERREIRO]
Frente Guasu (Broad Front coalition) or FG [Fernando Armindo LUGO Mendez]
GANAR Alliance (Great Renewed National Alliance) (alliance between PLRA and Guasú Front)
Movimiento Hagamos or MH [Antonio "Tony" APURIL]
Movimiento Union Nacional de Ciudadanos Eticos (National Union of Ethical Citizens) or UNACE [Jorge OVIEDO MATTO]
Partido Cruzada Nacional (National Crusade Party) or PCN [Payo CUBAS]; note - formerly Movimiento Cruzada Nacional
Partido del Movimiento al Socialismo or P-MAS [Camilo Ernesto SOARES Machado]
Partido Democratica Progresista (Progressive Democratic Party) or PDP [Rafael FILIZZOLA]
Partido Encuentro Nacional or PEN [Fernando CAMACHO]
Partido Liberal Radical Autentico (Authentic Radical Liberal Party) or PLRA [Efrain ALEGRE]
Partido Pais Solidario or PPS [Carlos Alberto FILIZZOLA Pallares]
Partido Popular Tekojoja or PPT [Sixto PEREIRA Galeano]
Patria Querida (Beloved Fatherland Party) or PPQ [Miguel CARRIZOSA]

International organization participation

CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PROSUR, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHRC, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Antonio DOS SANTOS BEDOYA (since 15 September 2021)

chancery: 2209 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington DC  20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960

FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508

email address and website:;

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Marc OSTFIELD (since 9 March 2022)

embassy: 1776 Mariscal Lopez Avenue, Asuncion

mailing address: 3020 Asuncion Place, Washington DC  20521-3020

telephone: [595] (21) 248-3000

FAX: [595] (21) 213-728

email address and website:

Flag description

three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears a circular seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words PAZ Y JUSTICIA (Peace and Justice)); red symbolizes bravery and patriotism, white represents integrity and peace, and blue denotes liberty and generosity

note: the three color bands resemble those on the flag of the Netherlands; one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Moldova and Saudi Arabia

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem

name: "Paraguayos, Republica o muerte!" (Paraguayans, The Republic or Death!)

lyrics/music: Francisco Esteban ACUNA de Figueroa/disputed

note: adopted 1934, in use since 1846; officially adopted following its re-arrangement in 1934

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Jesuit Missions of La Santísima Trinidad de Paraná and Jesús de Tavarangue

NOTE: The information regarding Paraguay on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Paraguay 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Paraguay 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.