Peru Issues - 2023


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Disputes - international

Peru-Bolivia: Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border

Peru-Brazil: none identified

Peru-Chile: Bolivia continues to press for a sovereign corridor to the Pacific Ocean; any concession Chile makes to Bolivia to grant them a sovereign corridor requires approval by Peru under the terms of their treaty; in January 2018, the International Court of Justice ruled that Chile is not legally obligated to negotiate a sovereign corridor to the Pacific Ocean with Bolivia

Peru-Chile-Ecuador: Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines out to 200 nautical miles, which would give Peru 37,900 square kilometers of water

Peru-Colombia: organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; problems also include cross border illegal migration, human trafficking, and contraband smuggling

Peru-Ecuador: in 1999, Tiwinza memorial park was created on lands that remains sovereign Peruvian territory, but Ecuador has the right to maintain and administer it in perpetuity

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 1,286,434 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or have received alternative legal stay) (2021)

IDPs: 60,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2021)

Illicit drugs

world’s second-largest producer of cocaine and coca (after Colombia), with approximately 84,400 hectares (ha) under cultivation in 2021;  Peruvian cocaine is trafficked throughout South America for shipment to Europe, East Asia, Mexico, and the United States;  major importer of precursor chemicals for cocaine production; growing domestic drug consumption problem; a major source of precursor or essential chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics

NOTE: The information regarding Peru on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Peru 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Peru 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.