Russia Transportation - 2023


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National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 32 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 958

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 99,327,311 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 6,810,610,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix



1,218 (2021)

Airports - with paved runways


note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports - with unpaved runways


note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control


49 (2021)


177,700 km gas, 54,800 km oil, 19,300 km refined products (2017)


total: 85,494 km (2019)

narrow gauge: 957 km


total: 1,283,387 km (2012)

paved: 927,721 km (2012) (includes 39,143 km of expressways)

unpaved: 355,666 km (2012)


102,000 km (2009) (including 48,000 km with guaranteed depth; the 72,000-km system in European Russia links Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov, and Black Sea)

Merchant marine

total: 2,917

by type: bulk carrier 12, container ship 18, general cargo 987, oil tanker 392, other 1,508 (2022)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s):
Arctic Ocean:
Arkhangelsk, Murmansk
Baltic Sea:
Kaliningrad, Primorsk, Saint Petersburg
Black Sea: Novorossiysk
Pacific Ocean: Nakhodka, Vladivostok, Vostochnyy

oil terminal(s): Kavkaz oil terminal, Primorsk

container port(s) (TEUs): Saint Petersburg (2,042,358) (2021)

LNG terminal(s) (export): Sabetta, Sakhalin Island

river port(s): Astrakhan, Kazan (Volga River); Rostov-on-Don (Don River); Saint Petersburg (Neva River)

Transportation - note

Russia operates the largest polar class icebreaker fleet in the World with 52 vessels, including the World's only seven nuclear powered heavy icebreakers; the primary missions of Russia's fleet includes keeping open the Northern Sea Route (NSR) in the Arctic Ocean (see Arctic Ocean map) along with Russia's Arctic ports and terminals, maintaining shipping lanes in the Baltic Sea, and supporting ports, terminals, and shipping in the Russian Far East including the Sea of Okhotsk; Russia operates seven PC 1 or 2 heavy icebreakers, 31 PC 3 or 4 medium icebreakers, and 14 PC 5 or 6 light icebreakers
note - PC indicates a Polar Class vessel: PC 1 - year-round operation in all polar waters (ice thickness >3 m); PC 2 - year-round operation in moderate multi-year ice conditions (ice thickness up to 3 m); PC 3 - year-round operation in second-year ice which may include multi-year ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 2.5 m); PC 4 - year-round operation in thick first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 120 cm); PC 5 - year-round operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 70-120 cm); PC 6 - summer/autumn operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 30-70 cm)

Russian icebreaker Yamal:

NOTE: The information regarding Russia on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Russia 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Russia 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.