Saudi Arabia People - 2023


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese


35,939,806 (2023 est.)

note: immigrants make up 38.3% of the total population, according to UN data (2019)


noun: Saudi(s)

adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian

Ethnic groups

Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%


Arabic (official)

major-language sample(s):
كتاب حقائق العالم، المصدر الذي لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه للمعلومات الأساسية (Arabic)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Arabic audio sample:


Muslim (official; citizens are 85-90% Sunni and 10-12% Shia), other (includes Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, and Sikh) (2020 est.)

note: despite having a large expatriate community of various faiths (more than 30% of the population), most forms of public religious expression inconsistent with the government-sanctioned interpretation of Sunni Islam are restricted; non-Muslims are not allowed to have Saudi citizenship and non-Muslim places of worship are not permitted (2013)

MENA religious affiliation

Age structure

0-14 years: 23.45% (male 4,298,399/female 4,130,547)

15-64 years: 72.36% (male 15,251,742/female 10,752,649)

65 years and over: 4.19% (2023 est.) (male 799,270/female 707,199)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 40.4

youth dependency ratio: 36.8

elderly dependency ratio: 3.7

potential support ratio: 27.4 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 30.8 years

male: 33 years

female: 27.9 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.65% (2023 est.)

Birth rate

13.9 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Death rate

3.45 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Net migration rate

6.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Population distribution

historically a population that was mostly nomadic or semi-nomadic, the Saudi population has become more settled since petroleum was discovered in the 1930s; most of the economic activities - and with it the country's population - is concentrated in a wide area across the middle of the peninsula, from Ad Dammam in the east, through Riyadh in the interior, to Mecca-Medina in the west near the Red Sea


urban population: 85% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.69% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

7.682 million RIYADH (capital), 4.863 million Jeddah, 2.150 million Mecca, 1.573 million Medina, 1.329 million Ad Dammam, 872,000 million Hufuf-Mubarraz (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.42 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.13 male(s)/female

total population: 1.31 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

16 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 11.97 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 13.16 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.91 years

male: 75.33 years

female: 78.56 years (2023 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.89 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.92 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

27.9% (2019)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: N/A

rural: N/A

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: N/A

rural: N/A

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

5.5% of GDP (2018)

Physicians density

2.74 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

2.2 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: N/A

rural: N/A

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: N/A

rural: N/A

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

35.4% (2016)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 14.3% (2020 est.)

male: 26.5% (2020 est.)

female: 2% (2020 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight


Currently married women (ages 15-49)

63.2% (2023 est.)

Education expenditures

7.8% of GDP (2020) NA


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.6%

male: 98.6%

female: 96% (2020)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 17 years

male: 17 years

female: 16 years (2021)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 28.8%

male: 22.4%

female: 47.9% (2021 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Saudi Arabia on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Saudi Arabia 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Saudi Arabia 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.