Zambia Issues - 2023


GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese

Disputes - international

Zambia-Angola: because the straight-line segments along the left bank (Zambian side) of the Cuando/Kwando River do not conform with the physical alignment of the unstable shoreline, Zambian residents in some areas have settled illegally on sections of shoreline that fall on the Angolan side of the boundary

Zambia-Democratic Republic of Congo(DRC):
boundary commission continues discussions over Congolese-administered triangle of land on the right bank of the Lunkinda River claimed by Zambia near the DRC village of Pweto

Zambia-Tanzania: some drug smuggling may take place across the Zambia-Tanzania border; there are no known current territorial issues, as both states have continued to recognize the colonial boundaries last modified in 1937; the boundary in Lake Tanganyika remains undefined.

Zambia-Zimbabwe: in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; in May 2021, Botswana and Zambia agreed in principle to let Zimbabwe be a partner in the bridge project as it enters its lasts phase

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 55,753 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 7,866 (Burundi) (2023)

Trafficking in persons

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Zambia does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; efforts included increasing investigations, prosecutions, and convictions in trafficking crimes, launching a national action plan for trafficking in persons and implementing a national referral mechanism, and increasing screening and identification of victims among migrants; however, the government did not demonstrate overall increasing efforts to expand anti-trafficking capacity; officials did not amend laws to criminalize all forms of child sex trafficking, nor approve guidelines for funding or shelter operations; because the government has devoted sufficient resources to a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute significant efforts to meet the minimum standards, Zambia was granted a waiver per the TVPA from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 and, therefore, remained on Tier 2 Watch List for the third consecutive year (2022)

trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Zambia as well as Zambians abroad; most trafficking occurs within Zambia’s borders, with traffickers exploiting women and children from rural areas in domestic servitude or forced labor in agriculture, textile production, mining, construction, small businesses, and forced begging; Jerabo—small illegal mining gangs—may force Zambian children into illegal mining operations, such as loading stolen copper or crushing rocks; orphans and children from rural areas are vulnerable to sex trafficking and forced labor; truck drivers exploit Zambian boys and girls in sex trafficking in towns along the Zimbabwean and Tanzanian borders, and miners exploit them in Solwezi; Zambian boys are exploited for sex trafficking in Zimbabwe, women and girls face sex trafficking in South Africa, and some women are recruited for domestic servitude in Lebanon and Oman; women and children from neighboring counties are exploited in force labor and sex trafficking in Zambia; some Chinese women and girls brought to Zambia by Chinese traffickers are sexually exploited in brothels and massage businesses; traffickers exploit victims from Tanzania and Malawi in the Zambian timber industry (2022)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis

NOTE: The information regarding Zambia on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Zambia 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Zambia 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.