Bangladesh Environment - 2021


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Environment - current issues

many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; waterborne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; destruction of wetlands; severe overpopulation with noise pollution

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 58.33 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 84.25 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 59.3 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 3.6 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 770 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 31.5 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

1,227,032,000,000 cubic meters (2017 est.)


tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

Land use

agricultural land: 70.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 59% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 6.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 4.6% (2018 est.)

forest: 11.1% (2018 est.)

other: 18.8% (2018 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 0.08% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0.02% of GDP (2018 est.)


urban population: 38.9% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 2.88% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations

water contact diseases: leptospirosis

animal contact diseases: rabies

note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Bangladesh; as of 19 July 2021, Bangladesh has reported a total of 1,128,889 cases of COVID-19 or 685.47 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with 11.13 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 19 July 2021, 3.54% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine

Food insecurity

severe localized food insecurity: due to economic constraints - food insecurity poverty levels have increased due to income losses and a decline in remittances caused by the effects of the COVID‑19 pandemic (2021)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 14,778,497 tons (2012 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Bangladesh on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Bangladesh 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Bangladesh 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.