Botswana Environment - 2021


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Environment - current issues

overgrazing; desertification; limited freshwater resources; air pollution

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 21.24 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 6.34 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 5.73 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 100.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 23.4 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 69 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

12.24 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Land use

agricultural land: 45.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0.6% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 45.2% (2018 est.)

forest: 19.8% (2018 est.)

other: 34.4% (2018 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 0.23% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0.45% of GDP (2018 est.)


urban population: 71.6% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 2.47% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 210,854 tons (2010 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 2,109 tons (2005 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 1% (2005 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Botswana on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Botswana 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Botswana 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.