Burundi Environment - 2021


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Environment - current issues

soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 35.61 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.5 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 1.42 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 43.1 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 15 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 222 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

12.536 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees Celsius but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)

Land use

agricultural land: 73.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 38.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 15.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 18.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 6.6% (2018 est.)

other: 20.1% (2018 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 10.31% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 3

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 72


urban population: 14.1% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 5.43% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

Food insecurity

widespread lack of access: due to floods, and lack of rain - about 1 million people are estimated to be severely food insecure in the June−September 2021 period, mainly due to livelihood losses caused by poor rains in northern areas and by floods in western areas bordering Lake Tanganyika; the socio‑economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has put further constraints on livelihoods of vulnerable households. (2021)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1,872,016 tons (2002 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Burundi on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Burundi 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Burundi 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.