Chad Environment - 2021


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Environment - current issues

inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas and poor farming practices contribute to soil and water pollution; desertification

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping-London Convention

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 53.01 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 1.02 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 30.69 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 103.7 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 103.7 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 672.2 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

45.7 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


tropical in south, desert in north

Land use

agricultural land: 39.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 35.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 9.1% (2018 est.)

other: 51.3% (2018 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 3.81% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 19

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 78


urban population: 23.8% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 4.1% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

Food insecurity

widespread lack of access: due to civil insecurity - about 1.78 million people were projected to be in “Crisis” and above in the June‑August 2021 period due to persistent insecurity in the Lac and Tibesti regions, which continues to disrupt livelihood activities and to cause population displacements; about 336,124 people were displaced due to insecurity in Lake Chad Region; COVID‑19 pandemic containment measures continue to slow down the national economy, reducing employment opportunities; this downturn has contributed to a weakening of the purchasing power of poor vulnerable households, limiting their access to food (2021)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1,358,851 tons (2010 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Chad on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Chad 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Chad 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.