Djibouti Environment - 2021


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Environment - current issues

inadequate supplies of potable water; water pollution; limited arable land; deforestation (forests threatened by agriculture and the use of wood for fuel); desertification; endangered species

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 40.38 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.62 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.52 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 16 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 3 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

300 million cubic meters (2017 est.)


desert; torrid, dry

Land use

agricultural land: 73.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 73.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 0.2% (2018 est.)

other: 26.4% (2018 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 0.26% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 86

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 89


urban population: 78.2% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.56% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever

Food insecurity

widespread lack of access: due to floods - about 194,000 people were estimated to be severely food insecure in the January‑August 2021 period, mainly due to livelihood losses caused by floods and landslides, and as a result of the socio‑economic impact of the pandemic on the livelihoods of vulnerable households; Cyclone Sagar struck the country on 19 and 20 May 2021, bringing torrential rains; the precipitation received, about 110 mm, was the equivalent of the average rainfall for an entire year and triggered heavy flooding, especially in the capital, Djibouti City and surrounding areas (2021)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 114,997 tons (2002 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Djibouti on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Djibouti 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Djibouti 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.