Greece Environment - 2021


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Environment - current issues

air pollution; air emissions from transport and electricity power stations; water pollution; degradation of coastal zones; loss of biodiversity in terrestrial and marine ecosystems; increasing municipal and industrial waste

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 15.69 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 62.43 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 9.8 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 1.991 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 208.3 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 9.041 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

68.4 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

Land use

agricultural land: 63.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 19.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 8.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 34.8% (2018 est.)

forest: 30.5% (2018 est.)

other: 6.1% (2018 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0.04% of GDP (2018 est.)


urban population: 80% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.11% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 5,477,424 tons (2014 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,040,711 tons (2014 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 19% (2014 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Greece on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Greece 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Greece 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.