Indonesia Environment - 2021


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Environment - current issues

large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires cause heavy smog; over-exploitation of marine resources; environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 15.58 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 563.32 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 244.5 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 23.8 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 9.135 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 189.7 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

2,018,700,000,000 cubic meters (2017 est.)


tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Land use

agricultural land: 31.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 13% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 12.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 6.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 51.7% (2018 est.)

other: 17.1% (2018 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 0.39% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 71

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 1.06% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 5


urban population: 57.3% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

note: a new coronavirus is causing sustained community spread of respiratory illness (COVID-19) in Indonesia; as of 19 July 2021, Indonesia has reported a total of 2,950,058 cases of COVID-19 or 1,078.54 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with 27.86 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 19 July 2021, 15.39% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 65.2 million tons (2016 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 4.564 million tons (2016 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 7% (2016 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Indonesia on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Indonesia 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Indonesia 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.