Namibia Environment - 2021


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Environment - current issues

depletion and degradation of water and aquatic resources; desertification; land degradation; loss of biodiversity and biotic resources; wildlife poaching

Environment - international agreements

party to: Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 22.59 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 4.23 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 10.4 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 73 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 14 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 201 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

39.91 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

Land use

agricultural land: 47.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 46.2% (2018 est.)

forest: 8.8% (2018 est.)

other: 44% (2018 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 0.47% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 68

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 141


urban population: 53% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 3.64% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

Food insecurity

severe localized food insecurity: due to reduced incomes - an above-average harvest in 2021 is expected to lead to an improvement in food security compared to the previous year, however, the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, primarily income and job losses, are expected to continue to constrain households’ access to food (2021)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 256,729 tons (1993 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 11,553 tons (2005 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 4.5% (2005 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Namibia on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Namibia 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Namibia 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.