Romania Geography - 2021


SOURCE: 2021 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese

Location

Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates

46 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references

Europe

Area

total: 238,391 sq km

land: 229,891 sq km

water: 8,500 sq km

country comparison to the world: 83

Area - comparative

twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries

total: 2,844 km

border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km

Coastline

225 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain

central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation

highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 414 m

Natural resources

petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 60.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 39.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 19.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 28.7% (2018 est.)

other: 10.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

31,490 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

212.01 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Population distribution

urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania

Natural hazards

earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria

NOTE: The information regarding Romania on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Romania 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Romania 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.