Rwanda Environment - 2021


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Environment - current issues

deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; land degradation; soil erosion; a decline in soil fertility (soil exhaustion); wetland degradation and loss of biodiversity; widespread poaching

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 40.75 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 1.11 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 2.92 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 61.4 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 20.5 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 102 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

13.3 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

Land use

agricultural land: 74.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 47% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 10.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 17.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 18% (2018 est.)

other: 7.5% (2018 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 3.75% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 20

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 156


urban population: 17.6% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 3.07% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

animal contact diseases: rabies

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4,384,969 tons (2016 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Rwanda on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Rwanda 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Rwanda 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.