Saudi Arabia Geography - 2021


SOURCE: 2021 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES  Spanish Simplified Chinese French German Russian Hindi Arabic Portuguese

Location

Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen

Geographic coordinates

25 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references

Middle East

Area

total: 2,149,690 sq km

land: 2,149,690 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 14

Area - comparative

slightly more than one-fifth the size of the US

Land boundaries

total: 4,272 km

border countries (7): Iraq 811 km, Jordan 731 km, Kuwait 221 km, Oman 658 km, Qatar 87 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1307 km

Coastline

2,640 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 18 nm

continental shelf: not specified

Climate

harsh, dry desert with great temperature extremes

Terrain

mostly sandy desert

Elevation

highest point: As Sarawat range, 3,000 m

lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

mean elevation: 665 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper

Land use

agricultural land: 80.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 1.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 79.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 0.5% (2018 est.)

other: 18.8% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

16,200 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

2.4 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Population distribution

historically a population that was mostly nomadic or semi-nomadic, the Saudi population has become more settled since petroleum was discovered in the 1930s; most of the economic activities - and with it the country's population - is concentrated in a wide area across the middle of the peninsula, from Ad Dammam in the east, through Riyadh in the interior, to Mecca-Medina in the west near the Red Sea

Natural hazards

frequent sand and dust storms

volcanism: despite many volcanic formations, there has been little activity in the past few centuries; volcanoes include Harrat Rahat, Harrat Khaybar, Harrat Lunayyir, and Jabal Yar

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the world without a river; extensive coastlines on the Persian Gulf and Red Sea allow for considerable shipping (especially of crude oil) through the Persian Gulf and Suez Canal

NOTE: The information regarding Saudi Arabia on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Saudi Arabia 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Saudi Arabia 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.