Sudan Environment - 2021


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Environment - current issues

water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water; water scarcity and periodic drought; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; deforestation; loss of biodiversity


Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 47.92 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 20 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 75.1 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 950 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 75 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 25.91 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

37.8 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


hot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)

Land use

agricultural land: 100% (2018 est.)

arable land: 15.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 84.2% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 0% (2018 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

forest revenues: 3.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)


urban population: 35.6% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 3.43% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

Food insecurity

severe localized food insecurity: due to conflict, civil insecurity, and soaring food prices - the number of severely food insecure people was estimated at 9.8 million in the June−September 2021 period, due to flood-induced livelihood losses sustained in 2020, soaring food prices and inter‑communal conflict; the main drivers are macro‑economic challenges resulting in rampant food and non‑food inflation, the lingering impact of 2020 widespread floods on livelihoods and the escalation of inter‑communal violence in western Greater Darfur Region and in eastern South Kordofan, North Kordofan and Blue Nile states (2021)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2,831,291 tons (2015 est.)

NOTE: The information regarding Sudan on this page is re-published from the 2021 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Sudan 2021 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Sudan 2021 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 16 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.