Cyprus Government - 2023


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Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus

conventional short form: Cyprus

local long form: Kypriaki Dimokratia (Greek)/ Kibris Cumhuriyeti (Turkish)

local short form: Kypros (Greek)/ Kibris (Turkish)

etymology: the derivation of the name "Cyprus" is unknown, but the extensive mining of copper metal on the island in antiquity gave rise to the Latin word "cuprum" for copper

note: the Turkish Cypriot community, which administers the northern part of the island, refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" or "TRNC" ("Kuzey Kibris Turk Cumhuriyeti" or "KKTC")

Government type

Republic of Cyprus - presidential republic; self-declared "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC) - parliamentary republic with enhanced presidency

note: a separation of the two main ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified when a Greek military-junta-supported coup attempt prompted the Turkish military intervention in July 1974 that gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government on the island; on 15 November 1983, then Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTAS declared independence and the formation of the "TRNC,” which is recognized only by Turkey


name: Nicosia (Lefkosia/Lefkosa)

geographic coordinates: 35 10 N, 33 22 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: a mispronunciation of the city's Greek name Lefkosia and its Turkish name Lefkosa, both of which mean "White City"; the Greek name may derive from the Greek phrase "leuke ousia" ("white estate")

Administrative divisions

6 districts; Ammochostos (Famagusta; all but a small part located in the Turkish Cypriot community), Keryneia (Kyrenia; the only district located entirely in the Turkish Cypriot community), Larnaka (Larnaca; with a small part located in the Turkish Cypriot community), Lefkosia (Nicosia; a small part administered by Turkish Cypriots), Lemesos (Limassol), Pafos (Paphos); note - the 5 "districts" of the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" are Gazimagusa (Famagusta), Girne (Kyrenia), Guzelyurt (Morphou), Iskele (Trikomo), Lefkosa (Nicosia)


16 August 1960 (from the UK); note - Turkish Cypriots proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 and independence in 1983, but these proclamations are recognized only by Turkey

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish Cypriots celebrate 15 November (1983) as "Republic Day"


history: ratified 16 August 1960; note - in 1963, the constitution was partly suspended as Turkish Cypriots withdrew from the government; Turkish-held territory in 1983 was declared the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"); in 1985, the "TRNC" approved its own constitution

amendments: constitution of the Republic of Cyprus - proposed by the House of Representatives; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the total membership of the "Greek Community" and the "Turkish Community"; however, all seats of Turkish Cypriot members have remained vacant since 1964; amended many times, last in 2020;
constitution of the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” - proposed by at least 10 members of the "Assembly of the Republic"; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the total Assembly membership and approval by referendum; amended 2014

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law and civil law with European law supremacy

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cyprus

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Nikos CHRISTODOULIDIS (since 28 February 2023); the president is both chief of state and head of government; note - vice presidency reserved for a Turkish Cypriot, but vacant since 1974 because Turkish Cypriots do not participate in the Republic of Cyprus Government

head of government: President Nikos CHRISTODOULIDIS (since 28 February 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - under the 1960 constitution, 3 of the ministerial posts reserved for Turkish Cypriots, appointed by the vice president; positions currently filled by Greek Cypriots

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); election last held on held 5 February 2023 with a runoff on 12 February 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

election results: 2023: Nikos CHRISTODOULIDIS elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Nikos CHRISTODOULIDIS (independent) 32%, Andreas MAVROGIIANNIS (independent) 29.6%, Averof NEOFYTOU (DISY) 26.1%, Christos CHRISTOU (ELAM) 6%, other 6.3%; percent of vote in second round - Nikos CHRISTODOULIDS 52%, Andreas MAVROGIANNIS 48%

Nikos ANASTASIADIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS (DISY) 35.5%, Stavros MALAS (AKEL) 30.2%, Nicolas PAPADOPOULOS (DIKO) 25.7%, other 8.6%; percent of vote in second round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS 56%, Stavros MALAS 44%

2013: Nikos ANASTASIADIS elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS 45.5% (DISY), Stavros  MALAS 26.9% (AKEL), Georgos LILLIKAS 24.9% (SP), other 2.7%; percent of vote in second round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS 57.5%, Savros MALAS 42.5%

note: the first round of the TRNC presidential election, originally scheduled for 26 April 2020, was postponed to 11 October 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic; the second round was held on 18 October 2020; percent of vote in the first round - Ersin TATAR (UBP) 32.4%, Mustafa AKINCI (independent) 29.8%, Tufan ERHURMAN (RTP) 21.7%, Kudret OZERSAY (independent) 5.7%, Erhan ARIKLI (YDP) 5.4%, Serdar DENKTAS (independent) 4.2%, other 0.8%; percent of vote in the second round - Ersin TATAR 51.7%, Mustafa AKINCI 48.3%

Legislative branch

description: area under government control: unicameral House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots, but only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are filled; members directly elected by both proportional representation and preferential vote; members serve 5-year terms; note - 3 seats each are reserved for the Latin, Maronite, and Armenian religious groups;
area administered by Turkish Cypriots: unicameral "Assembly of the Republic" or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote using a hybrid d'Hondt method with voter preference for individual candidates

elections: area under government control; last held on 30 May 2021 (next to be held in 2026); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: last held on 23 January 2022 (next to be held in 2027)

election results: area under government control: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - DISY 27.8%, AKEL 22.3%, DIKO 11.3%, ELAM 6.8%, EDEK-SP 6.7%, DIPA 6.1%, Movement of Ecologists - Citizens' Cooperation 4.4%, other 14.6%; seats by party/coalition - DISY 17, AKEL 15, DIKO 9, ELAM 4, EDEK-SP 4, DIPA 4, Movement of Ecologists - Citizens' Cooperation 3; composition - men 48, women 8, percent of women 14.3%; area administered by Turkish Cypriots - "Assembly of the Republic" - percent of vote by party - UBP 39.5%, CTP 32%, DP 7.4%, HP 6.7%, YDP 6.4%, other 8%; seats by party - UBP 24, CTP 18, DP 3, HP 3, YDP 2; composition NA

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cyprus (consists of 13 judges, including the court president); note - the highest court in the "TRNC" is the "Supreme Court" (consists of 8 "judges," including the "court president")

judge selection and term of office: Republic of Cyprus Supreme Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Supreme Court judges; judges can serve until age 68; "TRNC Supreme Court" judges appointed by the "Supreme Council of Judicature," a 12-member body of judges, the attorney general, appointees by the president of the "TRNC," and by the "Legislative Assembly," and members elected by the bar association; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: Republic of Cyprus district courts; Assize Courts; Administrative Court; specialized courts for issues relating to family, industrial disputes, the military, and rent control; "TRNC Assize Courts"; "district and family courts"

Political parties and leaders

area under government control:
Citizens' Alliance or SP [Giorgos LILLIKAS] (dissolved 2 December 2021)
Democratic Front or DIPA [Marios GAROYIAN]
Democratic Party or DIKO [Nikolas PAPADOPOULOS]
Democratic Rally or DISY [Annita DIMITRIOU]
Movement of Ecologists - Citizens' Alliance [Charalambos THEOPEMPTOU]
Movement of Social Democrats EDEK [Marinos SIZOPOULOS]
National Popular Front or ELAM [Christos CHRISTOU]
Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Stefanos STEFANOU]
Solidarity Movement [Eleni THEOCHAROUS]

area administered by Turkish Cypriots:
Communal Democracy Party or TDP [Mine ATLI]
Communal Liberation Party - New Forces or TKP-YG [Mehmet CAKICI]
Cyprus Socialist Party or KSP [Mehmet BIRINCI]
Democratic Party or DP [Fikri ATAOGLU]
National Democratic Party or NDP [Buray BUSKUVUTCU]
National Unity Party or UBP [Faiz SUCUOGLU]
New Cyprus Party or YKP [Murat KANATLI]
People's Party or HP [Kudret OZERSAY]
Rebirth Party or YDP [Erhan ARIKLI]
Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Tufan ERHURMAN]
United Cyprus Party or BKP [Izzet IZCAN]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Marios LYSIOTIS (since 17 September 2018)

chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772

FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: New York

honorary consulate(s): Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Kirkland (WA), Los Angeles, New Orleans, San Francisco

note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot community in the US is Mustafa LAKADAMYALI; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1] (202) 887-6198

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Julie D. FISHER (since 21 February 2023)

embassy: Metochiou and Ploutarchou Street, 2407, Engomi, Nicosia

mailing address: 5450 Nicosia Place, Washington DC  20521-5450

telephone: [357] (22) 393939

FAX: [357] (22) 780944

email address and website:

Flag description

centered on a white field is a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the island has long been famous for its copper deposits) above two olive-green-colored, crossed olive branches; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities

note: one of only two national flags that uses a map as a design element; the flag of Kosovo is the other

note: the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" flag retains the white field of the Cyprus national flag but displays narrow horizontal red stripes positioned a small distance from the top and bottom edges between which are centered a red crescent and a red five-pointed star; the banner is modeled after the Turkish national flag but with the colors reversed

National symbol(s)

Cypriot mouflon (wild sheep), white dove; national colors: blue, white

National anthem

name: "Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian" (Hymn to Liberty)

lyrics/music: Dionysios SOLOMOS/Nikolaos MANTZAROS

note: adopted 1960; Cyprus adopted the Greek national anthem as its own; the Turkish Cypriot community in Cyprus uses the anthem of Turkey

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 3 (all cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Paphos; Painted Churches in the Troodos Region; Choirokoitia

NOTE: The information regarding Cyprus on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Cyprus 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Cyprus 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.