Pakistan Issues - 2023


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Disputes - international

Pakistan-Afghanistan: since 2002, with UN assistance, Pakistan has repatriated about 5.3 million Afghan refugees, leaving about 2.74-3 million; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; in February 2022, amid skirmishes between Taliban and Pakistani forces, Pakistan announced its intent to finish constructing the barbed wire fence along the Durand Line and bring nearby areas under its control; Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps

Pakistan-China: none identified

Pakistan-India: Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have initiated discussions on defusing the armed standoff in the Siachen glacier region; the Siachen glacier is claimed by both countries and militarily occupied by India: Pakistan opposed India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control (completed in 2004) and the construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River (opened in 2008) in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show Junagadh in India's Gujarat State as part of Pakistan

Pakistan-Iran: none identified



Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 2.62-2.88 million (1.28 million registered, 1.34-1.6  million undocumented or otherwise categorized) (Afghanistan) (2022)

IDPs: 104,000 (primarily those who remain displaced by counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations and violent conflict between armed non-state groups in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber-Paktunkwa Province; more than 1 million displaced in northern Waziristan in 2014; individuals also have been displaced by repeated monsoon floods) (2021)

stateless persons: 48 (2022)

Illicit drugs

one of the world’s top transit corridors for opiates and cannabis products trafficked with Afghanistan and Iran; increased synthetic drug smuggling primarily methamphetamine; a major source of precursor or essential chemicals used in the production of heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants

NOTE: The information regarding Pakistan on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Pakistan 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Pakistan 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.