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Bosnia and Herzegovina

      Following update on Bosnia was Supplied by Muamer Bajric on 8-Jan-98.
    • Bosnia has been at war from March of 1992 to December 1995. Leaders of each ethnic group (Bosnian Serb representative was Serbia's president, Slobodan Milosevic) were at peace talks in Dayton, Ohio from November to December 1995. They agreed that there would be a united state of Bosnia-Herzegovina consisting of two entities, Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina (Croat-Bosniac federation) and Republika Srpska (Serb controlled part of Bosnia). Federation got 51% and RS the rest of Bosnia. The state as a whole is headed by a three-member presidency, and has a central government called The Ministers' Council. There are 10 cantons within the Federation of B-H, and about 120 municipalities (comunes) in the entire country. Each entities has its own parliament, government, president and army, but all are (except of the army) responsible to the central insitutions. There were more than 150,000 dead on all sides. About a million of Bosnians (of all ethnicities) became and are still refugees all around the world.
    • Location:
    • SE Europe (Mediterrenean Sea area), bordering on S, W and N Croatia, and on E Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
    • Area:
    • 51,129 km�
      ------------ END OF UPDATE ---------

    • Note:
      Bosnia and Herzegovina is set to enter its third year of interethnic civil strife which began in the spring of 1992 after the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina held a referendum on independence. Bosnia's Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to 'greater Serbia'. In March 1994, Bosnia's Muslims and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement in Washington, DC, creating the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. A group of rebel Muslims, however, continues to battle government forces in the northwest enclave of Bihac. A Contact Group of countries, the US, UK, France, Germany, and Russia, continues to seek a resolution between the Federation and the Bosnian Serbs. In July of 1994 the Contact Group presented a plan to the warring parties that roughly equally divides the country between the two, while maintaining Bosnia in its current internationally recognized borders. The Federation agreed to the plan almost immediately, while the Bosnian Serbs rejected it.

    • Location:
      Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

    • Map references:
      Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

    • Area:

        total area:
        51,233 sq km

        land area:
        51,233 sq km

        comparative area:
        slightly larger than Tennessee

    • Land boundaries:
      total 1,459 km, Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312 km with Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro)

    • Coastline:
      20 km

    • Maritime claims:
      NA

    • International disputes:
      as of January 1995, Bosnian Government and Bosnian Serb leaders remain far apart on territorial and constitutional solutions for Bosnia; the two sides did, however, sign a four-month cessation of hostilities agreement effective January 1; the Bosnian Serbs continue to reject the Contact Group Plan submitted by the United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Russia, and accepted by the Bosnian Government, which stands firm in its desire to regain lost territory and preserve Bosnia as a multiethnic state within its current borders; Bosnian Serb forces control approximately 70% of Bosnian territory

    • Climate:
      hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

    • Terrain:
      mountains and valleys

    • Natural resources:
      coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, wood products, copper, chromium, lead, zinc

    • Land use:

        arable land:
        20%

        permanent crops:
        2%

        meadows and pastures:
        25%

        forest and woodland:
        36%

        other:
        17%

    • Irrigated land:
      NA sq km

    • Environment:

        current issues:
        air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties, water shortages, and destruction of infrastructure because of civil strife

        natural hazards:
        frequent and destructive earthquakes

        international agreements:
        party to - Air Pollution, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection






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