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Poland


    • Location:
      Central Europe, east of Germany

    • Map references:
      Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

    • Area:

        total area:
        312,680 sq km

        land area:
        304,510 sq km

        comparative area:
        slightly smaller than New Mexico

    • Land boundaries:
      total 3,114 km, Belarus 605 km, Czech Republic 658 km, Germany 456 km, Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Slovakia 444 km, Ukraine 428 km

    • Coastline:
      491 km

    • Maritime claims:

        exclusive economic zone:
        defined by international treaties

        territorial sea:
        12 nm

    • International disputes:
      none

    • Climate:
      temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers

    • Terrain:
      mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border

    • Natural resources:
      coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt

    • Land use:

        arable land:
        46%

        permanent crops:
        1%

        meadows and pastures:
        13%

        forest and woodland:
        28%

        other:
        12%

    • Irrigated land:
      1,000 sq km (1989 est.)

    • Environment:

        current issues:
        forest damage due to air pollution and resulting acid rain; improper means for disposal of large amounts of hazardous and industrial waste; severe water pollution from industrial and municipal sources; severe air pollution results from emissions of sulfur dioxide from coal-fired power plants, which also drifts into Germany and the Netherlands

        natural hazards:
        NA

        international agreements:
        party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

    • Note:
      historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain






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