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Tonga


    • Location:
      Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

    • Map references:
      Oceania

    • Area:

        total area:
        748 sq km

        land area:
        718 sq km

        comparative area:
        slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC

    • Land boundaries:
      0 km

    • Coastline:
      419 km

    • Maritime claims:

        continental shelf:
        200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

        exclusive economic zone:
        200 nm

        territorial sea:
        12 nm

    • International disputes:
      none

    • Climate:
      tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)

    • Terrain:
      most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base

    • Natural resources:
      fish, fertile soil

    • Land use:

        arable land:
        25%

        permanent crops:
        55%

        meadows and pastures:
        6%

        forest and woodland:
        12%

        other:
        2%

    • Irrigated land:
      NA sq km

    • Environment:

        current issues:
        deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations

        natural hazards:
        cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou

        international agreements:
        party to - Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban

    • Note:
      archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited)






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