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Turkmenistan


    • Location:
      Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan

    • Map references:
      Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States

    • Area:

        total area:
        488,100 sq km

        land area:
        488,100 sq km

        comparative area:
        slightly larger than California

    • Land boundaries:
      total 3,736 km, Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km

    • Coastline:
      0 km

        note:
        Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)

    • Maritime claims:
      none; landlocked

    • International disputes:
      Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined

    • Climate:
      subtropical desert

    • Terrain:
      flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west

    • Natural resources:
      petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulphur, salt

    • Land use:

        arable land:
        2%

        permanent crops:
        0%

        meadows and pastures:
        69%

        forest and woodland:
        0%

        other:
        29%

    • Irrigated land:
      12,450 sq km (1990)

    • Environment:

        current issues:
        contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salinization, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification

        natural hazards:
        NA

        international agreements:
        party to - Ozone Layer Protection

    • Note:
      landlocked






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