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    Antarctica Geography - 2003
    https://theodora.com/wfb2003/antarctica/antarctica_geography.html
    SOURCE: 2003 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

      Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle


      Geographic coordinates: 90 00 S, 0 00 E


      Map references: Antarctic Region


      Area: total: 14 million sq km
      note: fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North America, and South America, but larger than Australia and the subcontinent of Europe
      land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km ice-covered) (est.)


      Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US


      Land boundaries: 0 km
      note: see entry on International disputes


      Coastline: 17,968 km


      Maritime claims: none; 20 of 27 Antarctic consultative nations have made no claims to Antarctic territory (although Russia and the US have reserved the right to do so) and do not recognize the claims of the other nations; also see the Disputes - international entry


      Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing


      Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent


      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,555 m
      highest point: Vinson Massif 4,897 m
      note: the lowest known land point in Antarctica is hidden in the Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under seawater


      Natural resources: iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish, and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries


      Land use: arable land: 0%
      permanent crops: 0%
      other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) (1998 est.)


      Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1998 est.)


      Natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may calve from ice shelf


      Environment - current issues: in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers; researchers in 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light coming through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm one-celled antarctic marine plants; in 2002, significant areas of ice shelves disintegrated in response to regional warming


      Geography - note: the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable


      NOTE: The information regarding Antarctica on this page is re-published from the 2003 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Guinea Geography 2003 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Antarctica Geography 2003 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    https://theodora.com/wfb2003/antarctica/antarctica_geography.html

    Revised 20-Sep-03
    Copyright © 2003 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)


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