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    Antarctica Transportation - 2003
    https://theodora.com/wfb2003/antarctica/antarctica_transportation.html
    SOURCE: 2003 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

      Ports and harbors: there are no developed ports and harbors in Antarctica; most coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and supplies are transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges, and helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03 W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under "Legal System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage is sparse and intermittent


      Airports: 30
      note: 30 stations, operated by 16 national governments party to the Antarctic Treaty, have aircraft landing facilities for either helicopters and/or fixed-wing aircraft; commercial enterprises operate two additional aircraft landing facilities; helicopter pads are available at 27 stations; runways at 15 locations are gravel, sea-ice, blue-ice, or compacted snow suitable for landing wheeled, fixed-wing aircraft; of these, 1 is greater than 3 km in length, 6 are between 2 km and 3 km in length, 3 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 3 are less than 1 km in length, and 2 are of unknown length; snow surface skiways, limited to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing aircraft, are available at another 15 locations; of these, 4 are greater than 3 km in length, 3 are between 2 km and 3 km in length, 2 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 2 are less than 1 km in length, and 4 are of unknown length; aircraft landing facilities generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; aircraft landing facilities do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective governmental or nongovernmental operating organization required for landing; landed aircraft are subject to inspection in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty (2002)


      Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 19
      over 3,047 m: 6
      2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
      914 to 1,523 m: 4
      under 914 m: 5 (2002)
      1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


      Heliports: 27 stations have helicopter landing facilities (helipads) (2002)


      NOTE: The information regarding Antarctica on this page is re-published from the 2003 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Guinea Geography 2003 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Antarctica Transportation 2003 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    https://theodora.com/wfb2003/antarctica/antarctica_transportation.html

    Revised 20-Sep-03
    Copyright © 2003 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)


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