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Australia Geography 2018

SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Australia Geography 2018
SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 28, 2018

Location:
Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references:
Oceania

Area:
total: 7,741,220 sq km
[see also: Area - total country ranks ]
land: 7,682,300 sq km
[see also: Area - land country ranks ]
water: 58,920 sq km
[see also: Area - water country ranks ]
note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island
country comparison to the world: 7

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states
Area comparison map: slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states

Land boundaries:
0 km

Coastline:
25,760 km
[see also: Coastline country ranks ]

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
[see also: Maritime claims - territorial sea country ranks ]
contiguous zone: 24 nm
[see also: Maritime claims - contiguous zone country ranks ]
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
[see also: Maritime claims - exclusive economic zone country ranks ]
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
[see also: Maritime claims - continental shelf country ranks ]

Climate:
generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north
More Climate Details

Terrain:
mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation:
mean elevation: 330 m
[see also: Elevation - mean elevation country ranks ]
elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,228 m

Natural resources:
bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, rare earth elements, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum
note: Australia is the world's largest net exporter of coal accounting for 29% of global coal exports

Land use:
agricultural land: 53.4% arable land 6.2%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 47.1%
[see also: Land use - agricultural land country ranks ]
forest: 19.3%
[see also: Land use - forest country ranks ]
other: 27.3% (2011 est.)
[see also: Land use - other country ranks ]

Irrigated land:
25,500 sq km (2012)
[see also: Irrigated land country ranks ]

Population - distribution:
population is primarily located on the periphery, with the highest concentration of people residing in the southeast; a secondary population center is located in and around Perth in the west; of the States and Territories, New South Wales has, by far, the largest population; the interior, or "outback", has a very sparse population

Natural hazards:
cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires
volcanism: volcanic activity on Heard and McDonald Islands

Environment - current issues:
soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural freshwater resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; the largest country in Oceania, the largest country entirely in the Southern Hemisphere, and the largest country without land borders; the only continent without glaciers; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; the invigorating sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor" affects the city of Perth on the west coast and is one of the most consistent winds in the world


NOTE: 1) The information regarding Australia on this page is re-published from the 2018 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Australia Geography 2018 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Australia Geography 2018 should be addressed to the CIA.
2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
  a) The assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
  b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order






This page was last modified 28-Feb-18
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