Australia Issues - 2023


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Disputes - international

Australia-Indonesia (Maritime Boundary): All borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature. Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef. Australia closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing.

Australia-Timor-Leste (Maritime Boundary):
 In 2007, Australia and Timor-Leste agreed to a 50-year development zone and revenue sharing arrangement and deferred a maritime boundary.

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 12,180 (Iran), 8,741 (Afghanistan), 5,042 (Pakistan) (mid-year 2022)

stateless persons: 7,649 (2022)

Illicit drugs

 amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) and cannabis dominate the domestic illicit drug market and shown potential for expansion, with ATS accounting for the preponderance of detected imports; domestic heroin market is small, but also shown some growth; as of 2020, Malaysia was the primary embarkation point for heroin and ATS imports other than MDMA (ecstasy) for which South Korea was the primary embarkation point although MDMA is increasingly being produced domestically with number of detected labs nearly doubled.  The US is the principal embarkation point for imported cannabis; Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate; major consumer of cocaine and amphetamines

NOTE: The information regarding Australia on this page is re-published from the 2023 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Australia 2023 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Australia 2023 should be addressed to the CIA or the source cited on each page.

This page was last modified 06 Dec 23, Copyright © 2023 ITA all rights reserved.